The Sense Organs’ Detection


Exam 2
Chapter 5
1. The sense organs’ detection of external physical stimuli is called ________, whereas further processing, organizing, and interpreting of those stimuli in the brain is called ________.
a. sensation; perception

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b. perception; sensation
c. transduction; perception
d. perception; transduction
2. Taj wants to create a robot that has sensation but not perception. The robot should
a. react to light but not to the stimuli for taste, smell, or touch.
b. detect external physical energy but not interpret it.
c. understand what things are but be unable to respond to them.
d. construct useful information but be unable to remember it.
3. The minimum intensity of sensory stimulation required before a sensation is detected 50 percent of the time is called
a. the absolute threshold.

b. signal detection.
c. the difference threshold.
d. sensory adaptation.
4. The area where the optic nerve leaves the retina is referred to as the
a. pupil.
b. cone.

c. fovea.
d. blind spot.
5. Colleen and LaVonne are playing darts. Colleen throws her dart into the center of the target, and LaVonne throws his dart into the outer ring. If we compare this scenario to the process of vision, Colleen would have been likely to hit a ________, and LaVonne would have been likely to hit a ________.
a. rod; cone

b. rod; rod
c. cone; cone
d. cone; rod
6. Sameer is mixing paint. He starts with a very dark green paint and then gradually adds white paint. Sameer is ________ of the green paint.
a. changing the hue

b. increasing the saturation
c. decreasing the saturation
d. changing the contrast
7. According to ________ we perceive a car as a whole unit rather than perceiving it as a group of distinct entities (such as metal, tires, glass, door handles, hubcaps, and fenders).
a. bottom-up processing
b. bottom-down processing

c. Gestalt psychology
d. transduction
8. According to the ________ model of conceptual processing, the recognition of patterns occurs because data are relayed from a lower level to a higher level of processing in the brain.
a. bottom-up processing
b. top-down processing

c. continuity
d. binocular disparity

9. When Margot was a child, her mother baked bread on Fridays. As an adult, whenever Margot smells bread baking she remembers her mother and feels happy. The mood and memories result from the processing of smell information in the
a. thalamus.
b. olfactory epithelium.

c. olfactory bulb.
d. amygdala.
10. Why does a dog sniff virtually everything that it encounters?
a. because its sense of vision is very poor
b. because olfactory information is rarely transmitted to its brain
c. because the main way that a dog perceives the world is through olfaction
d. because sniffing is associated with pleasant odors
Chapter 6
11. Timothy believes that his infant son was born as a blank slate, knowing nothing about the world. This information suggests that Timothy most likely believes in
a. associative learning.
b. habituation.

c. tabula rasa.
d. long-term potentiation.
12. Gavin is a 3-year-old who used to color on the walls with his crayons. Gavin’s father told him, “We color on paper, not on walls,” and gave him a time-out. Gavin does not color on the walls anymore, which is most likely a result of all of the following EXCEPT
a. associative learning.
b. long-term potentiation.
d. non-associative learning.

c. learning.
13. Every day after class, Jerome smells delicious pizza from Steel’s Pizza House on his walk home and his mouth starts to water. One day, Jerome is riding the bus home from class and sees the Steel’s Pizza House sign, and even this makes his mouth start to water. Jerome has most likely experienced all of the following EXCEPT
a. strengthening of synaptic connections.
b. habituation.
c. long-term potentiation.
d. learning.
14. In Pavlov’s research, dogs learned that the sound of a metronome predicted the arrival of food, so the dogs salivated at the sound of the metronome. In this research, classical conditioning occurred in part because the ________ elicited a(n) ________.
a. unconditioned stimulus (food); unconditioned response (salivation)
b. conditioned stimulus (food); conditioned response (salivation)
c. unconditioned stimulus (metronome); conditioned response (salivation)
d. conditioned stimulus (metronome); unconditioned response (salivation)
15. Ralph ate sushi for lunch, and an hour later he felt sick to his stomach. In this situation, classical conditioning might occur. In other words, Ralph might learn an association between sushi and feeling sick because the two events
a. relate to biological needs.
b. are not related.

c. prohibit normal functioning.
d. are paired closely in timing.

16. If Pavlov repeatedly presented the conditioned stimulus, the metronome, without the unconditioned stimulus, the food, the dogs would stop salivating to the sound of the metronome. In classical conditioning, this process is called
a. acquisition.
b. extinction.

c. spontaneous recovery.
d. stimulus generalization.
17. When Kathy is in the shower and someone flushes the toilet, the water turns hot and she gets burned. Soon, Kathy becomes classically conditioned to fear the toilet flushing when she is in the shower. When Kathy visits her parents she does not get burned when someone flushes the toilet while she is in the shower. When she returns home and hears the toilet flush while in the shower, Kathy immediately feels a surge of fear. This example best illustrates the fact that extinction is
a. a form of learning that inhibits, not deletes, what is learned.
b. an adaptive response to delete information from memory associations.
c. a useful tendency to try to readapt old learning strategies to novel problems.
d. the basis for non-associative learning when applied to unfamiliar situations.
18. Vincent wants to use systematic desensitization to treat his patient’s phobia of elevators. After the patient learns how to relax her muscles, Vincent’s next step should be to
a. get the patient into an elevator and practice relaxing.
b. explain to the patient what is going on in her brain when she feels fearful.
c. have the patient imagine an elevator while continuing the relaxation exercises.
d. give the patient a dollar for every floor she passes during an elevator ride.
19. Percy wants to teach his daughter good manners. To increase the likelihood of her saying “Excuse me” when bumping into someone in a store, he should use a stimulus called a(n)
a. punishment.
b. reinforcer.

c. operant.
d. token economy.
20. Mario believes that his son is learning to be aggressive because he plays violent video games. In what way could observational learning explain the connection Mario sees between media and his son’s behavior?
a. Children are rewarded for playing violent video games, which increases their level of
b. Violent video games reinforce children’s biological tendency toward aggression.
c. Children who watch violence in video games tend to show more aggressive thoughts and
d. Exposure to violence in video games changes the levels of neurotransmitters in children’s
brains and thus makes them more likely to act violently.

Chapter 7
21. You just taught your dog to roll over whenever you say “Play dead!” If your dog forms a memory about how to do this trick on command it will be because his brain
a. encoded the auditory information about the command.
b. created a mental video recording of how to do the trick.
c. stored the information about how to twist his body to roll over.
d. acquired the information and retained it so that it could access it later on.

22. When you are reading your textbook, your brain changes the words you are reading into a meaningful neural code that it can use. In memory, this process is called
a. encoding.
b. storage.

c. retrieval.
d. attention.
23. After reading your textbook, you are able to maintain the bold, key words in coded representations in a network of neurons in your brain. In memory, this process is called
a. retrieval.
b. attention.

c. encoding.
d. storage.

24. The three phases of memory include (1) changing external information into a neural code, (2) retaining the information, and (3) accessing it later on. In this order, these three memory steps are
a. (1) input, (2) storage, and (3) retrieval.
b. (1) encoding, (2) storage, and (3) retrieval.
c. (1) encoding, (2) processing, and (3) output.
d. (1) input, (2) processing, and (3) output.
25. In an experiment, you are asked to memorize a list of 30 words. At first, this seems like a challenging task. Then you remember that you can hold more words in short-term storage if you
a. expand the capacity of your sensory storage.
b. recall the word list an hour after you finish the experiment.
c. group words together in meaningful ways.
d. avoid using attention processes for working memory.
26. To remember her nine-digit Social Security number, Alyssa uses her working memory to place the numbers into three groups. In addition, each group of three or four digits is easy to remember because it is meaningful. Alyssa has made her Social Security number easier to remember by using
a. retrieval cues.

b. chunking.
c. the primacy effect.
d. maintenance rehearsal.
27. If someone asks you to describe your first day of school, you would most likely retrieve a(n) ________ memory.
a. Procedural
b. Implicit

c. episodic
d. semantic
28. If someone asks you to describe what a school is, you would most likely retrieve a(n) ________ memory.
a. Procedural
b. Implicit

c. episodic
d. semantic
29. When Karl was a child, he loved to sit in his grandmother’s kitchen watching her cook Italian food. Now, whenever he smells Italian food, he instantly remembers those childhood times. For Karl, the smell of Italian food is a ________ for memories about his grandmother.
a. retrieval cue
b. state-dependent cue

c. mnemonic
d. method of loci
30. Samantha is looking outside her window when she sees a man stealing a bike from a bike rack located outside her apartment complex. When the police question her, Samantha might remember more details about the crime if she talks to the police

a. after she has had an alcoholic drink to calm down.
b. in a week so she has time to think about the event.
c. the next morning when she is in a more positive mood.
d. by the window where she watched the man steal the bike.

Chapter 8
31. When you read the word cake on a menu, it is a(n) ________ representation. The picture of a cake on a menu is a(n) ________ representation.
a. analogical; symbolic
b. symbolic; analogical

c. symbolic; conceptual
d. conceptual; symbolic
32. A picture of a computer is an example of a(n) ________ representation. The word computer is an example of a(n) ________ representation.
a. mental map; conceptual
b. conceptual; mental map

c. analogical; symbolic
d. symbolic; analogical
33. Which of the following best describes problem solving?
a. finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal
b. selecting the best option among a set of alternatives
c. reasoning from general information to specific information
d. using information to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable
34.Which of the following best describes reasoning?
a. finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal
b. selecting the best option among a set of alternatives
c. choosing between general information and specific information
d. using information to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable
35. Using algorithms in decision making has the advantage of ________ and the disadvantage of ________.
a. requiring minimal thinking; not always working
b. not always working; requiring minimal thinking
c. always working; requiring effortful thinking
d. requiring effortful thinking; always working
36. Using heuristics in decision making has the advantage of ________ and the disadvantage of ________.
a. requiring minimal thinking; not always working
b. not always working; requiring minimal thinking
c. always working; requiring effortful thinking
d. requiring effortful thinking; always working
37. Gillian bought one set of tools because that brand offered a $10 rebate. The tool company influenced her decision by presenting the information about the rebates. This is a strategy known as
a. restructuring.
b. framing.

c. the availability heuristic.
d. the representativeness heuristic.

38. Using an analogy to help solve a problem is most likely to occur when the problem
a. is very specific and well-defined.
b. has many subgoals.
c. is similar to another problem.
d. cannot be solved by working backward.
39. After struggling to solve a physics problem, you take a break for lunch. When you go back to work on the problem, the solution suddenly pops into your head. In this case you used ________ to solve the problem.
a. an analogy
b. restructuring

c. insight
d. a mental set
40. Marco wants to get an A on his exam. To do this, he divides up the material into small sections and focuses on learning a different section every day until he knows all of the material for the exam. Marco is ________ to achieve his goal of getting an A on his exam.
a. using subgoals
b. working backward

c. creating an analogy
d. using insight
Chapter 9
41. When explaining the purpose of homeostasis, Dr. Murphy would most likely suggest that it
a. generates a drive to satisfy a need.
b. stabilizes conditions in the body.
c. creates a state of arousal.
d. uses incentives to reduce drives.
42. Cyril is writing an essay on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Which of the following should he include as a critique of the theory?
a. Self-actualization may not be necessary for happiness.
b. It is limited to Western cultures.
c. It defines the nature of a need too broadly.
d. It underestimates the role of physiological factors.
43. Cesar has done so well in his economics class that he only needs 43 out of 100 points on the final exam to receive an “A” in the class. Cesar still studies a lot because he wants to do well on the final. Cesar’s behavior is affected by
a. a drive.

b. external motivation.
c. a habit.
d. internal motivation.
44. Ruth has weighed 130 pounds all her adult life. During her pregnancy, she gained 25 pounds. After having her baby, Ruth’s weight returned naturally to 130 pounds. For Ruth, 130 pounds is a(n) ________, and her body went back to it through the process of ________.
a. optimal weight; equilibrium
b. set point; equilibrium

c. set point; homeostasis
d. optimal weight; homeostasis
45. Since anxiety can hurt test performance, Thatcher does relaxation exercises before a big exam. He is shocked when he does poorly on the exam. He would have been less surprised had he known about the relationship between physiological activation and performance, as described in

a. self-determination theory.
b. Cannon’s theory of homeostasis.

c. the Yerkes-Dodson law.
d. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

46. Jenna plans to be an engineer. However, she loves taking dance classes and makes time for them even if it means that she must skip a meal or not get much sleep. Jenna’s behavior is best explained by
a. a satisfaction of needs.
b. drive reduction.

c. incentives.
d. the pleasure principle.
47. Terry’s home was destroyed in a hurricane. It is hard to find food, so he is constantly hungry. However, he feels lucky because his family survived and he is together with his loved ones. According to Maslow’s theory, Terry’s ________ needs are not met, but his ________ needs are being met.
a. safety; esteem
b. physiological; belonging

c. physiological; esteem
d. safety; belonging
48. Gertrude is close to finishing her degree in biology and has been offered several good jobs in her field. However, Gertrude decides that she really wants to become a carpenter. She quits school and becomes a very happy and successful carpenter. According to Maslow, Gertrude
a. does not have a need for achievement.
b. is self-actualized.
c. has high self-esteem.
d. is behaving according to her set point.
49. Robert becomes anxious during exams. He has found that chewing on the eraser on his pencil while he thinks helps him to calm down. Over time, Robert’s pencil chewing is likely to become a(n)
a. incentive.
b. habit.

c. drive.
d. need.
50. Vincent is a brilliant artist and is very satisfied with his achievements. However, he has little to eat, lives in poverty, and spends most of his time alone working on his art. Why would Vincent’s life be problematic in terms of Maslow’s need hierarchy?
a. Satisfaction is an emotion, not a need.

b. Lower needs must be met before higher needs.

c. Satisfying the need for esteem requires financial success.

d. Lower and higher needs cannot be met simultaneously

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