The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay

The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay

The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay

Discuss the concepts in the Health Belief Model ( Hint: there are about 5-6) and describe their relationship from a global perspective. How can you apply the concepts of the Health Belief Model to a person in the global community during this COVID-19 pandemic?The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay

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The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the first theories of health behavior. It was developed in the 1950s by social psychologists in the U.S. Public Health Services to better understand the widespread failure of tuberculosis screening programs. Today it continues to be one of the most widely used theories. Research studies use it to explain and predict health behaviors seen in individuals. There is a broad range of health behaviors and subject populations that it is applied in. The concepts in the model involve perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals being studied create an understanding of their…show more content…

The authors used all constructs of the theory through pre- and post-survey questionnaires for subjects studied that went through the training course. Through the pre-survey they were able to determine what realtors prior perceptions on lead and whether or not they understood its implications and any of the background information relating to lead prior to taking the course. After completion of the course, in six months, they were followed up with surveys and phone calls to determine how effective the course was. The realtors enrolled in the study were volunteers and were provided with a $200 financial incentive. The behavior researchers sought was to see if the realtors put into action what they learned and whether or not they were able to inform potential clients about the homes they were selling. An increase in realtor awareness is seen through the feedback they provided therefore it reveals to have sustained a continuous behavioral change in the thought process of selling a home to potential buyers.The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay The authors did not clearly define the theories they used. Instead they stated using quantitative and qualitative measures and also described their methodology in detail. The authors made good use of the HBM theory as they were able to raise awareness in realtors who had little knowledge or different perceptions on lead prior to training. Researchers are working on finding solutions to keeping children’s blood lead levels down. Giving
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Chapter2The health belief modelCharles Abraham and Paschal Sheeran1 General background In the 1950s, US public health researchers began developing psychological models designed to enhance the effectiveness of health education programmes (Hochbaum 1958; Rosenstock 1966). Demographic characteristics such as socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity, and age were known to be associated with preventive health-related behaviour patterns (i.e. patterns of behaviour predictive of differences in morbidity and mortality) as well as differential use of health services (Rosenstock 1974). Even when services were publicly financed, socio-economic status was associated with health-related behaviour patterns. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics could not be modified through health education but it was hypothesized that other potentially modifiable individual characteristics associated with health-related behaviour patterns could be changed through educational interventions, and thus shift health behaviour patterns at population levels. Beliefs provide a crucial link between socialization and behaviour. Beliefs are enduring indi-vidual characteristics that shape behaviour and can be acquired through primary socialization. Beliefs are also modifiable and can differentiate between individuals from the same background. If persuasive techniques can be used to change behaviour-related beliefs and such interventions result in behaviour change, this provides a theoretical and practical basis for evidence-based health education.The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay The relationship between health beliefs and behaviours was conceptualized primarily in terms of Lewin’s (1951) idea of ‘valence’. Particular beliefs were thought to make behaviours more or less attractive. This resulted in an expectancy-value model of belief–behaviour relation-ships in which events believed to be more or less likely were positively or negatively evaluated by individuals. In particular, the likelihood of experiencing a health problem, the severity of the consequences of that problem, and the perceived benefits of a preventive behaviour, in combi-nation with its potential costs, were seen as key beliefs that shaped health-related behaviour MHBK140-ch02_p30-69.indd 30 28/05/15 3:19 PM
HEALTH BELIEF MODEL 31patterns. Early research found that these health beliefs were indeed correlated with differ-ences in health-related behaviour patterns (referred to below as ‘health behaviours’ or ‘health behaviour patterns’) and so could be used to differentiate between those who did and did not undertake such behaviours. The model was initially applied to preventive behaviours but later successfully extended to identify the correlates of health service usage and adherence to medi-cal advice (Becker et al. 1977b).Rosenstock (1974) attributed the first health belief model (HBM) research to Hochbaum’s (1958) studies of the uptake of tuberculosis X-ray screening. Hochbaum found that perceived sus-ceptibility to tuberculosis and the belief that people with the disease could be asymptomatic (mak-ing screening beneficial) distinguished between those who had and had not attended for chest X-rays. Similarly, a prospective study by Kegeles (1963) showed that perceived susceptibility to the worst imaginable dental problems and awareness that visits to the dentist might prevent these problems were useful predictors of the frequency of dental visits over the next three years. Haefner and Kirscht (1970) took this research further by demonstrating that an HBM-based health educa-tion intervention designed to increase participants’ perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and anticipated benefits resulted in a greater number of check-up visits to the doctor compared with no intervention over an eight-month follow-up. Thus, by the early 1970s a series of studies suggested that the HBM specified a series of key health beliefs that provided a useful framework for understanding individual differences in health behaviour patterns and for designing behaviour change interventions.The HBM had the advantage of specifying a discrete set of common-sense beliefs that appear to explain, or mediate, the effects of demographic variables on health behaviour pat-terns and are amenable to change through educational intervention. The model could be applied to a range of health behaviours and so provided a framework for shaping behaviour patterns relevant to public health as well as training health care professionals to work from their patients’ subjective perceptions of illness and treatment. Consensus regarding the utility of the HBM was important for public health research and, simultaneously, placed cognition modelling at the centre of health service research.The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay The HBM was consolidated when Becker et al. (1977b) published a consensus statement from the Carnegie Grant Subcommittee on Modification of Patient Behavior for Health Mainte-nance and Disease Control. This paper considered a range of alternative approaches to under-standing the social psychological determinants of health and illness behaviour and endorsed the HBM framework. The components of the model were defined and further research on the relationships between individual beliefs and health behaviours was called for.2 Description of the model The HBM focused on two aspects of individuals’ representations of health and health behav-iour: threat perception and behavioural evaluation. Threat perception was construed as two key beliefs: perceived susceptibility to illness or health problems, and anticipated severity of the consequences of illnesses. Behavioural evaluation also consisted of two distinct sets of beliefs: those concerning the benefits or efficacy of a recommended health behaviour, and those con-cerning the costs of, or barriers to, enacting the behaviour. In addition, the model proposed that cues to action can activate health behaviour when appropriate beliefs are held. These ‘cues’ MHBK140-ch02_p30-69.indd 31 28/05/15 3:19 PM The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay
32 PREDICTING AND CHANGING HEALTH BEHAVIOUR included a diverse range of triggers, including individual perceptions of symptoms, social influ-ence, and health education campaigns. Finally, an individual’s general health motivation, or ‘readiness to be concerned about health matters’, was included in later versions of the model (e.g. Becker et al. 1977b). There were therefore six distinct constructs specified by the HBM.As Figure 2.1 indicates, there were no clear guidelines on how to operationalize the links between perceived susceptibility, severity, and overall threat perception. Similarly, although it was suggested that perceived benefits were ‘weighted against’ perceived barriers (Becker et al. 1977b), no formula for creating an overall behavioural evaluation measure was developed. Consequently, the model has usually been operationalized as a series of up to six separate inde-pendent variables that potentially account for variance in health behaviours. Even the defini-tion of these six constructs was left open to debate. Rosenstock (1974) and Becker and Maiman (1975) illustrated how various researchers used somewhat different operationalizations of these constructs and, in a meta-analysis of predictive applications of the HBM, Harrison et al. (1992) concluded that this lack of operational homogeneity weakens the HBM’s status as a coherent psychological model of the prerequisites of health behaviour. Nevertheless, a series of studies has shown that these various operationalizations allowed identification of beliefs correlated with health behaviours (e.g. Janz and Becker 1984)The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay

One of the health promotion model adopted for the “Swine Flu Project” is the Health Belief Model (Becker 1974) and it aims in creating a physical environment that promotes choice of a healthier lifestyle (Ewles and Simnett 1999). This model suggests that people need to possess some kind of clue to take an action upon behaviour styles and health related decisions. But the individuals hardly implement healthy behaviour to prevent specific diseases unless they believe in a way that they are susceptible to the disease.The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay

Health needs Assessment is a systematic process of identifying the health issues, targeting the needs of populations and taking an action in a cost effective way. Within the present study, these assessments were categorised in to 5 major steps that aim in obtaining relevant information about the topic and suggesting an action course (National Institute of Clinical Excellence, 2005). This assessment helps in getting a good knowledge on local contextual factors which ensure that any proposed intervention fits exactly with the Oxford Brookes University area context. Additionally, the base line characteristics pertaining to the disease prevalence assist in understanding the extent of change after the implementation of strategies (Stevans, Gillam 1998).

Nonetheless, this method is not suitable for the risk analysis study and thus without considering the possible barriers that may met in the long run, the success of this assessment programme seems to be highly questionable (Stevans, Gabbay 1991). Resource availability including funding, time and presence of other issues that compete for attention are the primary risk factors that need to be considered immediately. Besides this, the needs assessment is not effective in overcoming the behavioural changes of at intrapersonal level.The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay


Within the recent years, the United Kingdom has observed a notable increase in the cases pertaining to Swine Flu. Swine Flu (or Swine Influenza) is a respiratory illness caused by influenza virus (H1N1 strain) that infect the pig’s respiratory tract and result in continuous nasal secretions, reduced appetite, barking-like cough and listless actions. World Health Organisation declared the virus affecting the disease process as pandemic (June 2009) and the period following this year was announced as a post pandemic period (August 2010). By the year of 2009, a total number of 400 deaths were recorded in England as a consequence of disease outbreak. Subsequently in the year of 2010, around 4.88 million doses of H1N1 vaccine was provided to specific priority groups in United Kingdom (especially in England). The incidence as well as the prevalence rates of the disease was observed to be higher within children of less than 5 years age. Before analysing the disease process, it is very important to understand the concept of health promotion and its effective application in the disease process (Department of Health 2009).The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay

Anecdotally, to reduce the incidence of causative virus (H1N1 Influenza) the government must frame an action plan with an ultimate goal of improving the life quality and well being (Lipatov et al., 2004). The methods to enhance health associated behavioural changes, promoting environmental advocacy, providing more mechanical ventilators in communities and organisations (where in which the people accessibility is persisted at a higher rate), reducing the congestion and overfilling of areas with people and maintaining social distancing (another tactic) can be helpful. Usage of alcohol based sanitizers or foam hand sanitizers, covering face masks and wearing gloves (to reduce the likelihood of hand-to-eye, hand-to-mouth transmissions) need to effectively followed by all the individuals regardless of their age, sex and social class. Additionally, respiratory hygiene as a necessary intervention should be implemented and the awareness with relation to its benefits must be generalised to the local public (Centre for Disease Control, 2009). The hygiene within toilets, wash basins and other related sanitary places need to be monitored on a regular basis. Lastly, the government and local health organisations must necessitate the introduction of Vaccine (2009 Flu Pandemic Vaccine) to all the individuals to gain protection against the virus and its deleterious effects (Food and Drug Administration 2009). The designed action plan framework may assist in a way by minimising the incidence and disease prevalence thereby promoting health and well being.The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay

Knowledge of pandemic influenza virus persists to increase at a higher pace and the majority of clinical guidance that existed seems to be valid. Health promotion (a process of facilitating people to enhance the control over their health) strategies with relation to Swine Flu must designed to focus on the disease behaviour and its deleterious effects upon the individuals (Wise, Signal 2009). Health promotion approaches to the disease process and the related efforts placed in to the education, community development, policy designing, legislation and regulation are equally legitimate for the prevention of this disease, its progression and associated problems. In addition, the health promotion strategies implemented also play an effective role in reducing the health inequalities or variations that persist at a higher rate in United Kingdom (Wise, Signal 2009).The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay

The present report provides an overview of the various methods targeted towards disease prevention in Oxford Brookes University. In addition, it highlights of models like Health assessment, Health Beliefs together with their usefulness and limitations. The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay


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