The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay Assignment
Discuss the concepts in the Health Belief Model ( Hint: there are about 5-6) and describe their relationship from a global perspective. How can you apply the concepts of the Health Belief Model to a person in the global community during this COVID-19 pandemic?The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay
(You can use a scenario/a case approach)
The Health Belief Model is a theoretical model that can be used to guide health promotion and disease prevention programs. It is used to explain and predict individual changes in health behaviors. It is one of the most widely used models for understanding health behaviors.
Key elements of the Health Belief Model focus on individual beliefs about health conditions, which predict individual health-related behaviors. The model defines the key factors that influence health behaviors as an individual’s perceived threat to sickness or disease (perceived susceptibility), belief of consequence (perceived severity), potential positive benefits of action (perceived benefits), perceived barriers to action, exposure to factors that prompt action (cues to action), and confidence in ability to succeed (self-efficacy).
Health Belief Model Examples
The Michigan Model for Health™ is a curriculum designed for implementation in schools. It targets social and emotional health challenges including nutrition, physical activity, alcohol and drug use, safety, and personal health, among other topics. This model adapts components of the Health Belief Model related to knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, and environmental support.The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay
Considerations for Implementation
The Health Belief Model can be used to design short- and long-term interventions. The five key action-related components that determine the ability of the Health Belief Model to identify key decision-making points that influence health behaviors are:
Gathering information by conducting a health needs assessments and other efforts to determine who is at risk and the population(s) that should be targeted.
Conveying the consequences of the health issues associated with risk behaviors in a clear and unambiguous fashion to understand perceived severity.
Communicating to the target population the steps that are involved in taking the recommended action and highlighting the benefits to action.
Providing assistance in identifying and reducing barriers to action.
Demonstrating actions through skill development activities and providing support that enhances self-efficacy and the likelihood of successful behavior changes.
These actions represent key elements of the Health Belief Model and can be used to design or adapt health promotion or disease prevention programs. The Health Belief Model is appropriate to be used alone or in combination with other theories or models. To ensure success with this model, it is important to identify “cues to action” that are meaningful and appropriate for the target population.The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay
The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the first theories of health behavior. It was developed in the 1950s by social psychologists in the U.S. Public Health Services to better understand the widespread failure of tuberculosis screening programs. Today it continues to be one of the most widely used theories. Research studies use it to explain and predict health behaviors seen in individuals. There is a broad range of health behaviors and subject populations that it is applied in. The concepts in the model involve perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals being studied create an understanding of their…show more content…
The authors used all constructs of the theory through pre- and post-survey questionnaires for subjects studied that went through the training course. Through the pre-survey they were able to determine what realtors prior perceptions on lead and whether or not they understood its implications and any of the background information relating to lead prior to taking the course. After completion of the course, in six months, they were followed up with surveys and phone calls to determine how effective the course was. The realtors enrolled in the study were volunteers and were provided with a $200 financial incentive. The behavior researchers sought was to see if the realtors put into action what they learned and whether or not they were able to inform potential clients about the homes they were selling. An increase in realtor awareness is seen through the feedback they provided therefore it reveals to have sustained a continuous behavioral change in the thought process of selling a home to potential buyers. The authors did not clearly define the theories they used. Instead they stated using quantitative and qualitative measures and also described their methodology in detail. The authors made good use of the HBM theory as they were able to raise awareness in realtors who had little knowledge or different perceptions on lead prior to training. Researchers are working on finding solutions to keeping children’s blood lead levels down. The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay
The Health Belief Model helps explain why individual patients may accept or reject preventative health services or adopt healthy behaviors. Social psychologists originally developed the Health Belief Model to predict the likelihood of a person taking recommended preventative health action and to understand a person’s motivation and decision-making about seeking health services. The Health Belief Model proposes that people will respond best to messages about health promotion or disease prevention when the following four conditions for change exist:
The person believes that he or she is at risk of developing a specific condition.
The person believes that the risk is serious and the consequences of developing the condition are undesirable.
The person believes that the risk will be reduced by a specific behavior change.
The person believes that barriers to the behavior change can be overcome and managed.
The first condition in the Health Belief Model is perceived threat. If the person does not see a health care behavior as risky or threatening, there is no stimulus to act. For example, a 59 year old woman who sunbathes every day who doesn’t believe that she is at risk of skin cancer will continue to sun bathe. There are two types of perceived threats: perceived susceptibility and perceived severity. Susceptibility refers to how much risk a person perceives he or she has; severity refers to how serious the consequences might be. To effectively change health behaviors, the individual must usually believe in both susceptibility and severity. This is one reason that many people „get religion“ after they have been diagnosed with cancer, heart disease, or diabetes. Because both susceptibly and severity are a clear and present danger, people who have previously resisted or put off behavior change finally give up smoking, stop drinking, lose weight, or start an exercise program. Individuals must also have the expectation that the new behavior will be beneficial; they must feel that barriers to change do not outweigh the benefits and that they can realistically accomplish the needed changes in behavior. Unfortunately, for many desirable health behaviors, the barriers are immediate and the benefits are long-range. For example, it’s difficult to pass up eating a piece of chocolate cake with the hope that you will not have heart disease or cancer in the future. From this perspective, it is not hard to see why it is so difficult to get patients to change behaviors.The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay
Knowing what aspect of the Health Belief Model patients accept or reject can help you design appropriate interventions. For example, if a patient is unaware of his or her risk factors for one or more diseases, you can direct teaching toward informing the patient about personal risk factors. If the patient is aware of the risk, but feels that the behavior change is overwhelming or unachievable, you can focus your teaching efforts on helping the patient overcome the perceived barriers. The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay Assignment
Applied in a systematic way the full set of model components described above (to which
may on occasions be added a general health perception variable) would have the
potential to provide a relatively comprehensive understanding of the influence of social,
economic and environmental factors on health behaviours, in addition to that of cognitive
factors contained in the psycho-social equation at the heart of the HBM. However, the
use of this model has in practice focused largely on measurements and analyses of
susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier perception components alone. (See, for
example, Chen and Land 1990, Yarbrough and Braden 2001 2-B, Crepaz and Marks
Department of Health National Institute for Clinical Excellence
2002, Harrison et al 1992 2-B, Zimmerman and Vernberg 1994 2+B).
The research literature analysed during this review did not provide evidence that
applications of the HBM have enabled the influence of social, economic or other
environmental factors (including variables such as low income, exposure to racial
prejudice, cultural exclusion, low health valuations as cultural norms or inconvenient
service access arrangements) to be better understood by researchers, practitioners or
policy makers. This conclusion is consistent with that of commentators such as Cochran
and Mays (1993).
However, where factors such as socio-economic status have been analysed in studies
employing the HBM the results reported suggest impacts of comparable significance to,
or greater significance than, its cognitive components. Chen and Land (1990) observed
this in the context of dental care uptake. This point is also well illustrated by the work of
Yarbrough and Braden (2001 2-B). They conducted a systematic review of the utility of
the Health Belief Model as a guide for predicting breast cancer screening behaviours.
These authors concluded that the application of the model was inconsistent, and that at
best it ‘explained 47 per cent of the observed variance in screening behaviour when
socio-economic status was included. Otherwise predictive power was low, ranging from
15 per cent to 27 per cent.’The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay Assignment
1.2 Areas of use
Hochbaum was originally concerned with the uptake of TB screening opportunities
provided via mobile X-ray units. In that context (in the early 1 950s, when new
medicines for tuberculosis were becoming available) it was found that beliefs about
susceptibility to the infection and the benefits of screening were strongly correlated with
chest X-ray acceptance. Subsequent extensions of the model were associated with efforts
to apply it in other contexts, including not only other forms of screening but also
immunisation and compliance with medical treatment for conditions such as diabetes,
renal failure and hypertension (Becker 1974, Rosenstock 1974, Janz and Becker 1984,
Harrison et al 1992 2-B). It has more recently still been used in areas ranging from HIV
prevention to weight control. But various studies have questioned the extent to which
cognitions such as perceived threats are effective behavioural motivators. (See, for
example, Abraham and Sheeran 1994). This concern may be particularly relevant in the
contexts of child and adolescent behaviours (Baranowski et al 2003, Finfgeld et al 2003).
1.3 Effectiveness in predicting and efecting behavioural change
The available evidence indicates that the HBM has only a weak predictive power in most
areas of health related behaviour. This is in part a result of poor construct definition, a
lack of combinatorial rules and weaknesses in the predictive validity of the HBM’s core
psychological components (Armitage and Conner 2000). Harrison et al (1992 2-B)
conducted a meta-analysis of studies using the Health Belief Model in adult populations,
aimed at quantifying the independent relationships between each of its four main
components and the reported health behaviours. They found weak effect sizes,
accounting for between 0.1 and 9 per cent of variance. These authors were not able to
include other elements of the model because of the lack of studies incorporating them,
and concluded that ‘the weak effect sizes and lack of (study and construct) homogeneity
indicate that it is premature to draw conclusions about the predictive validity of the HBM
Zimmerman and Vernberg conducted a critical comparative meta-analysis of models of
preventive health behaviour (1994 2+B). This quality rated and included a total of 60
studies overall. Of these 30 (50 per cent) were HBM studies. They found that that the
Theory of Reasoned Action (see below) was a substantially better predictor of health
behaviours than the HBM. The TRA was able to explain just over 34 per cent of observed
health behavioural variance, as compared to 24 per cent in the case of the HBM. The
authors concluded that the HBM is in essence a list of variables rather than a theory
based on adequately specified relationships between its core components.
Department of Health National Institute for Clinical Excellence
1.4 Impact on health outcomes
This review identified no evidence indicative of the extent to which the use of HBM based
interventions has contributed positively to improved health outcomes in the United
Kingdom. See discussion relating to this research question below1 The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay Assignment
1.5 Overall model evaluation and summary evidence statement
The development of the Health Belief Model was of pioneering significance in the early
1950s. Systematic analyses using the full range of components that it today
incorporates might cast light on the impact of social and other factors associated with
inequalities in health, and the reasons why individuals and groups may not take up
health improvement or protection opportunities. However, the HBM is not in itself
clearly or adequately specified, and the available evidence indicates that in practice its
application appears to be inadequate for such purposes. Further, although the HBM
may be used to derive information that may then prompt interventions designed to
change health beliefs and behaviours, using the model itself cannot inform decision
making as to how such interventions might best be structured.
The value of the ‘perceived threat’ element serving as a central indicator of behavioural
motivation in the HBM has been questioned. So has the phenomenological orientation
of its design. Notwithstanding components like perceived barriers and demographic
and socio-economic descriptors, as normally applied this model may be taken implicitly
to assume that people are rational actors, driven by their conscious perceptions of the
world. This may misleadingly suggest that health behaviours can always best be
understood as being under volitional control, rather than in a large part determined by
combinations of circumstantial reality and individuals’ habitual, emotional, unconscious
and/or otherwise non-rational reactions to the external world. The research identified
provides evidence that the overall explanatory power of the HBM is limited, even
simply as compared to that of alternative social cognition models such as the TRA. The Concepts In The Health Belief Model Essay