Tenets of the Theory of Humanbecoming

Tenets of the Theory of Humanbecoming

Tenets of the Theory of Humanbecoming

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Reflect on the tenets of the Theory of Humanbecoming and its core concepts and assumptions. Then compare and contrast how the core concepts currently apply to your nursing practice versus how you anticipate they will relate to your future practice as a family nurse practitioner. Please identify at least 2 specific assumptions of the theory in your discussion as outlined in your textbook.

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Use the chapters


Chapter 14: Martha E. Roger’s Science of Unitary Human Beings

Chapter 15: Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s Humanbecoming Paradigm



Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice (Parker, Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice)

Authors: Marlaine Smith PhD RN AHN-BC FAAN; Marilyn E. Parker PhD RN FAAN

Edition: 4

Define the discipline and profession of nursing as implicated by Rosemarie Parse.

Articulate Parse’s reasons for changing man-living-health to humanbecoming.

Discuss the nine assumptions underlying the three major themes of Parse’s Humanbecoming Theory.

Describe the two research methods developed by Parse.

Discuss the components of Humanbecoming: The Art.

Identify and discuss the postulates and principles described by Parse and their role in explicating Parse’s Humanbecoming paradigm.

Compare and contrast a simultaneity paradigm, a totality paradigm and Parse’s humanbecoming paradigm.

*Tenets of the Theory of Humanbecoming

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Introducing the Theorist Rosemarie Rizzo Parse

Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Loyola University Chicago
Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing
Initiated and is immediate past chair of the Nursing Theory–Guided Practice Expert Panel.
Founder and editor of Nursing Science Quarterly
President of Discovery International

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Rosemarie Rizzo Parse

Founder of the Institute of Humanbecoming
Graduate of Duquesne University in Pittsburgh
Earned master’s degree and doctorate from the University of Pittsburgh

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Academic Positions

Faculty member, University of Pittsburgh
Dean School of Nursing, Duquesne University
Professor and Coordinator of the Center for Nursing Research at Hunter College, New York (1983 to 1993),
Professor and Niehoff Chair in Nursing Research at Loyola University, Chicago (1993 to 2006).

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Current Position

Since January 2007, Parse has been a Consultant and Visiting Scholar at the New York University College of Nursing.

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Original work was named Man-Living-Health: A Theory of Nursing (1981).
When the term mankind was replaced with male gender in the dictionary definition of man, the name of the theory was changed to human becoming (Parse, 1992).

Totality vs Simultaneity Paradigms

The totality paradigm frameworks and theories are more closely aligned with the medical model tradition.
Nurses practicing according to this paradigm are concerned with participation of persons in health care decisions but have specific regimens and goals to bring about change for the people they serve (Parse, 1999b).
In contrast, the simultaneity paradigm views the human as unitary–indivisible, unpredictable, and ever-changing (Parse, 1987, 1998a, 2007b), wherein health is considered a value and a process.
The ontology leads research and practice scholars to focus on, for example, energy and environmental field patterns (Rogers, 1992).
Nurses focus on power in knowing participation (Barrett, 2010; Rogers, 1992).
*Tenets of the Theory of Humanbecoming

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Third Paradigm

In 2012, Parse identified a third paradigm, the humanbecoming paradigm (Parse, 2012a, 2013a).
This was created in as much as the ontology, epistemology, and methodologies of the humanbecoming school of thought have moved on from the traditional metaparadigm conceptualization and beyond the totality and simultaneity paradigms (Parse, 2013a).

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Humanbecoming Paradigm

With the humanbecoming paradigm in the ontology, humanuniverse is an indivisible, unpredictable everchanging cocreation, and living quality is the becoming visible-invisible becoming of the emerging now.
Nurses living the humanbecoming paradigm beliefs hold that their primary concern is people’s perspectives of living quality with human dignity

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Fundamental Idea

Humans are indivisible, unpredictable, ever-changing
Precludes any use of terms such as physiological, biological, psychological, or spiritual to describe the human.
Other words often used to describe people, such as, noncompliant, dysfunctional, and manipulative are not consistent with humanbecoming
Humanbecoming and humanuniverse are presented as one word (Parse, 2007b).
Joining the words creates one concept and further confirms the idea of indivisibility.
*Tenets of the Theory of Humanbecoming

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The Ontology

The assumptions, postulates, and principles of the humanbecoming school of thought (Parse, 2007b).

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Humans construct personal realities with unique choosings arising with illimitable humanuniverse options
Rhythmical humanuniverse patterns of relating
Revealing–concealing, Enabling-limiting, Connecting–separating
Humans are ever-changing, that is, moving on with the possibilities of their intended hopes and dreams.
Powering, originating, transforming.

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Humanbecoming Research Methodologies
Sciencing humanbecoming is coming to know
It is an ongoing inquiry to discover and understand the meaning of lived experiences
Three research methods
Two basic research methods

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The Basic Research Methods

The Parse Method (Parse, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997a, 1998a, 2001)
Studying lived experiences from participants’ descriptions
The Humanbecoming Hermeneutic Method (Cody, 1995; Parse, 1995, 1998a, 2001, 2005).
Studying lived experiences from written texts and art forms

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Humanbecoming: The Art
The Goal of the Nurse
Living the humanbecoming beliefs is true presence in bearing witness and being with others in their changing health patterns.

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True Presence

Lived nurse with person, family, and community in illuminating meaning, synchronizing rhythms, and mobilizing transcendence (Parse, 1987, 1992, 1994a, 1995, 1997a, 1998a).
The nurse with individuals or groups is in true presence with the unfolding meanings as persons explicate, dwell with, and move on with changing patterns of diversity.

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True Presence (continued)

“True presence is an intentional reflective love, an interpersonal art grounded in a strong knowledge base” (Parse, 1998a, p 71).
Distinct from authentic presence, transforming presence, presencing, and other terms in the literature
True presence is a powerful humanuniverse connection.
Lived in face-to-face discussions, silent immersions, and lingering presence
*Tenets of the Theory of Humanbecoming

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Humanbecoming: The Art
Humanbecoming nurses live the art of the science of humanbecoming.
The term nursing practice is antithetical to the ontology.
Nurses come to persons in true presence with an availability to be with and bear witness, as persons illuminate the meaning of the situation, synchronize rhythms, and mobilize transcendence (Parse, 1981, 1987, 1998a, 2007b).

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Humanbecoming Nurses

Believe persons know their way and live their health situations according to their unique value priorities.
Ask what is most important for the moment
Explore meanings, wishes, intents, and desires related to the situation from the perspective of the recipients
Humanbecoming nurses are with persons in ways that honor their wishes and desires

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Research & Practice

The humanbecoming school of thought is a guide for research, practice, education, and administration in settings throughout the world.
Scholars from five continents have embraced the belief system and live humanbecoming in a variety of venues, including health care centers and university nursing programs

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Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company


Barrett, E.A.M. (2010). Power as knowing participation in change: What’s new and what’s next. Nursing Science Quarterly, 23, 47-55.

Parse, R. R. (1981). Man-living-health: A theory of nursing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Parse, R. R. (1987). Nursing science: Major paradigms, theories, and critiques. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

Parse, R. R. (1990). Parse’s research methodology with an illustration of the lived experience of hope. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3, 9–17.

Parse, R. R. (1992). Human becoming: Parse’s theory of nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 35–42.

Parse, R. R. (Ed.). (1995). Illuminations: The human becoming theory in practice and research. New York: Tenets of the Theory of Humanbecoming


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