Reproductive Disorders Essay

Reproductive Disorders Essay

Reproductive Disorders Essay

Jane, aged 23 years, tested positive for gonorrhea a year ago. Her partner was also diagnosed with penicillinase producing N. gonorrhoeae, and was given antibiotics. However, on the same day, Jane was taken to the ER with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. Her cervical smear test revealed N. gonorrhoeae as well as other bacteria.Reproductive Disorders Essay

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What are the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in a male and in a female?
How does gonorrhea lead to PID?
Is there any peritonitis involved?
Will Jane develop infertility?
What are drug-resistant bacteria?

The male reproductive system consists of two major parts: the testes, where sperm are produced, and the penis, according to Merck Manuals. The penis and urethra belong to both the urinary and reproductive systems in males. The testes are carried in an external pouch known as the scrotum, where they normally remain slightly cooler than body temperature to facilitate sperm production.Reproductive Disorders Essay

The external structures of the female reproductive system include the clitoris, labia minora, labia majora and Bartholin’s glands, according to the Cleveland Clinic. The major internal organs of the female reproductive system include the vagina and uterus — which act as the receptacle for semen — and the ovaries, which produce the female’s ova. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the fallopian tubes connect the uterus to the ovaries. In response to hormonal changes, one ovum, or egg — or more in the case of multiple births — is released and sent down the fallopian tube during ovulation. If not fertilized, this egg is eliminated during menstruation.

The female reproductive system.
The female reproductive system. (Image credit: National Institute of Health)Reproductive Disorders Essay
Fertilization occurs if a sperm enters the fallopian tube and burrows into the egg. While the fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, it can also happen in the uterus itself. The egg then becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus, where it begins the processes of embryogenesis (in which the embryo forms) and morphogenesis (in which the fetus begins to take shape). When the fetus is mature enough to survive outside of the womb, the cervix dilates, and contractions of the uterus propel it through the birth canal.

Variations in the reproductive system
Around 49.5 percent of the world’s population is female, so there are slightly more men on the planet than women, according to World Bank. A person’s sex is determined by what reproductive system the person has, but it isn’t always so simple. Some humans are born with parts of both male and female reproductive systems or incomplete reproductive organs of one sex or the other. Those with both male and female reproductive parts are considered intersex. Sometimes children are labeled as male or female, depending on how complete or functional one sexual reproductive system is over the other. Reproductive Disorders Essay

Disorders of the female reproductive system can occur as a result of disease in one of the many varied reproductive organs: the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus, the cervix, the vagina, or the breast. During the reproductive years, these disorders often present as altered menstruation, pelvic pain, or infertility. Cancers arising in these tissues occur more often in the late reproductive or menopausal years. Unfortunately, for several reasons, they often have high mortality rates and a high incidence of metastases when they are diagnosed. Some organs are located deep and are relatively inaccessible to palpation (ovaries). Others have few sensory nerves (ovary, fallopian tubes) and hence remain asymptomatic. Additionally, the breasts have large amounts of adipose tissue, which can make early detection of breast cancer difficult. The one exception is the uterine cervix. It has easy access to surveillance with use of the Papanicolaou smear and human papillomavirus (HPV) screening, which have led to a dramatically reduced mortality rate of cervical cancer.Reproductive Disorders Essay

Disorders of the female reproductive system can also occur as a result of disease in other organs whose function affects reproductive organs (eg, the brain, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, kidney, and liver). Presentation of these disorders is typically painless.

Conversely, disorders of the reproductive system can cause disorders in other tissues. Ovarian hormones are necessary for the maintenance and health of most tissues in women. Alterations in these hormones can lead to osteoporosis (loss of bone mass), atrophy and inflammation of estrogen-deprived tissues (eg, atrophic vaginitis), atherogenesis and alterations in cardiovascular compliance, and an increased risk of some forms of cancer (eg, endometrial carcinoma as a consequence of estrogen excess and progesterone deficiency). Dysfunction of the reproductive system also can contribute to unique variants of systemic disorders, such as gestational diabetes and the hypertensive syndrome of preeclampsia-eclampsia.Reproductive Disorders Essay

Checkpoint
1. How do female reproductive system disorders present during the reproductive years?

2. To what might you ascribe the lack of reduction in mortality rate from ovarian cancer in contrast to cervical cancer?

3. What are some consequences of reproductive system dysfunction?

Normal Structure & Function of the Female Reproductive Tract
Anatomy
The reproductive pelvic organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries (Figure 22–1). The two ovaries contain thousands of follicles, each with an oocyte surrounded by a layer of granulosa cells and thecal cells. These supporting cells produce steroids and paracrine products important in follicular maturation and coordination of events in reproduction. The fallopian tubes, which are open to the peritoneal space, connect the ovaries to the uterus. The uterus contains an internal hormone-sensitive mucosal lining, the endometrium. During nonpregnant cycles, menstrual bleeding occurs as the monthly culmination of endometrial growth, differentiation, and sloughing in response to changes in blood levels of estrogen and progesterone Reproductive Disorders Essay  is to ensure survival of the species. Other systems in the body, such as the endocrine and urinary systems, work continuously to maintain homeostasis for survival of the individual. An individual may live a long, healthy, and happy life without producing offspring, but if the species is to continue, at least some individuals must produce offspring.

Within the context of producing offspring, the reproductive system has four functions:

To produce egg and sperm cells
To transport and sustain these cells
To nurture the developing offspring
To produce hormones
These functions are divided between the primary and secondary, or accessory, reproductive organs. The primary reproductive organs, or gonads, consist of the ovaries and testes. These organs are responsible for producing the egg and sperm cells gametes), and hormones. These hormones function in the maturation of the reproductive system, the development of sexual characteristics, and regulation of the normal physiology of the reproductive system. All other organs, ducts, and glands in the reproductive system are considered secondary, or accessory, reproductive organs. These structures transport and sustain the gametes and nurture the developing offspring. Reproductive Disorders Essay

 

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