Principal management functions on efficiency and effectiveness.

What impact do the principal managerial functions have on efficiency and effectiveness? In the answer tie in the managerial roles identified by Henry Mintzberg; decisional roles, informational roles and interpersonal roles. Also discuss the impact of globalization on efficiency and effectiveness. Solution Preview


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Let’s begin by discussing what managerial work is all about. To most people, managerial work involves finance, strategic planning, marketing, as well as the direct involvement in the operations of the business. However, these roles are not by far, the main responsibility of a manager. The most essential thing that managers have in common is that they manage and interact with other people. The main focus or for the majority of their working day managers will spend a lot of time coping with people issues. Managers are highly involved in tasks such as coaching low performers, organizing job tasks, settling disputes and helping to develop career paths. To understand manager’s work, one must also understand the different roles that managers play and identify the skills required to perform the various roles.

It was once thought that managers simply need knowledge of what they were managing as well as knowledge of administration. Henri Fayol (1841-1925) was a key figure in the school of management theory. He saw a manager’s job as:

• Planning. Defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing sub-plans to co-ordinate activities.
• Organizing. Determining what needs to be done, how it will be done and who will do it.
• Leading. Directing and motivating all parties and resolving conflicts
• Controlling. Monitoring activities to ensure that they are accomplished as planned
• Outcome – achieving the organization’s stated purpose.

In addition, Fayol identified 14 principles that he saw as common to all organizations, the most important
Elements being:

• Specialization of labor. Specializing encourages improvement in skills and methods
• Unity of command. One and only one boss for each employee.
• Line of authority. A formal chain of command running from top to bottom
• Coordination. A combination of the right to give orders and the power to demand obedience coupled with a single mind generating a single plan and everyone plays a part in the plan.

Henri Mitzberg, who is well known for his studies of strategic development and managerial practice, sees things quite a bit differently. He basically believes that because of the diverse roles and tasks that manager’s do, it is dangerous to simplify and classify the elements of management. He suggests that although the above functions are useful is analyzing manager’s work, their overall work is much more involved.

Mitzberg has identified ten roles that are common to the work of all managers – divided into three groups. These roles are summarized in the following chart. The information roles link all managerial work together-they process information. The interpersonal roles ensure that information is provided. The decisional roles make significant use of the information.

• Leader
• Liaison
• Disseminator
• Spokesman
DECISIONAL • Entrepreneur
• Disturbance handler
• Resource Allocator
• Negotiator

Mitzberg argues that the information and interpersonal roles are important dimensions for every manager. In the interpersonal role, the managers are involved in three types of activities:

• Figurehead. Activities such as performing ceremonial roles such as making presentations or welcoming clients. He represents the organization in all matters of formality
• Leader. The manager hires and motivates employees.
• Liaison. The manager builds up a network of relationships outside the vertical chain of command. He may interact with peers and people outside of the organization.

The information role also involves three factors:

• Monitoring – the manager keeps tabs on what is going on
• Dissemination – the manager passes on information to his/her staff, and
• Representation – the manager acts as a spokesperson. In this role, the manager needs to inform and satisfy the influential people who control his/her organization.

Mitzberg goes on to say that the decisional group and its function are the most important roles …

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