PHILOSOPHY

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“Above all, Vaughn’s text does ,vhac few ochers are able co do, namely, co show chat ph ilosophy actually matters ,vich respect co ho,v we ch ink and live in the wo rld. For all its brevity the book 1nanages co run the gamut of critical topics, and to offer real-world (a nd often hu1norous) examples of each . He does not offer the luxury of viewing d iffic ult questions fro1n a position of abstracted detachment and safety. Rather, he hurls readers straight into the teeth of the sconn and allows che1n co feel the raw terror, wonder, and exh ilaration chat rightly belong co the st udy of philosophy.”

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“Vaughn has chosen the mos t important topics in philosophy. His 1nenu can not be improved upon. W ith a beautiful open ing chapter on the nature of ph ilosophical ch inking and remarkably concise chap ters on the 1n osc engaging issues in philosophy, and with a nice 1n ix of classic and conce1nporary philosophers, chis is a terri fic text. It is visually appealing as well.”

– Paul Herrick, Shoreline Community College

“Philosophy Here and Now is written in a clear, engagi ng, and lively style. The author does an excellent job of explain ing abstract and conceptually intricate material to novices. The book introduces students to philosophy as a living enterprise, full of intellectual surprises and relevance to everyday hu1nan concerns.”

– Phil ip Robbi ns, University of Missouri

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– Teresa Cantrell, University of Louisville

“Th is is the bes t text I have fou nd fo r my int roductory class. Q uest ions and exercises engage the st udents’ lives di rectly and ask chem co explain their own understand ing/beliefs about a matter. The appendix on writing ph ilosophy papers can easily stand on its o,vn as the mos t valuable cool I use in my class. I have yet co find anyth ing at chis price with a comparable content.”

– Stephen Orr, Solano Community College

PH L PHY HERE AND NOW

POWER FUL IDEAS IN EVERYDAY LIFE

THIRD EDITJC)~

Lewis Vaughn

NEWYORK [ OXFORD OXFORD UN IVERS ITY PRESS

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Names: Vaughn, Lewis} auth o r.

Title: Philosophy here and now : powerful ideas in everyday li fe I Lewis Vaughn. Description: T H IRD EDITION. J New York : Oxford University Press, 20 18. Identifiers: LCCN 20 18014409 I IS BN 9780 190852344 (pbk.) SubjecLs: LCSH: Philosophy- Textbooks. Classificatio n: LCC 8 031 .V38 2018 I DOC 100-dc23 LC record available ar https://lccn.loc.gov/20 180 14409

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• PREFACE XXI

CHAPTER 1 PHILOSOPHY AND YOU 1

CHAPTER 2 GOD AND RELIGION 57

CHAPTER 3 MORALITY AND THE MORAL LIFE 135

CHAPTER 4 MIND AND BODY 205

CHAPTER s FREE WILL AND DETERM INISM 240

CHAPTER 6 KNOWLEDGE AND SKEPTICISM 274

CHAPTER 7 AESTHETICS 332

CHAPTER 8 THE JUST SOCIETY 354

CHAPTER 9 THE MEAN ING OF LIFE 406

APPENDIX A THE TRUTH ABOUT PH ILOSOPHY MAJORS 431

APPENDIX B ANSWERS TO EXERCISES 437

APPENDIX c HOW TO WRITE A PHILOSOPHY PAPER 441

NOTES 451

GLOSSARY 457

CRED ITS 461

INDEX of MARGINAL

QUOTATIONS 463

GENERAL IN DEX 465

VII

Preface xxi

CHAPTER 1 PH I LOSOPHY AND YOU l

1.1 PHILOSOPHY: THE QUEST FOR UNDERSTANDING 2

The Good of Philosophy 2

Philoso phical Terra in 4 What Do You Believe? Your Philosophica l Beliefs 5 Essay/Discussion Questions 7

1.2 SOCRATES AND THE EXAMINED LIFE 8

Philosophers at Work: Pl ato 9

PLATO: The Republic 10 Philosophers at Work: The Pre-Socratics 12

Essay/Discussion Questions 14

1.3 THINKING PHILOSOPHICALLY 14

Reasons and Arguments 15 Philosophy Lab 16

Philosophers at Work: Phi losophy Takes on Racism 20

Reading Phil osophy 27 Philosophers at Work: Hypatia 29 Philosophers at Work: Early Women

Philoso phe rs: Themisto cl ea, Ar ignote,

and Theano 31

Fallacious Reason ing 33 Philosophy Now: Phi losophy in the News 34 Essay/Discussion Questions 40

REVIEW NOTES 40

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own Views 42

KEY TERMS 42

ARGUMENT EXERCISES 43 ix

x Cont ents

NARRATIVE: Plato, The Trial and Death of Socrates 47

PROBING QUESTIONS SS

FOR FURTHER READING SS

CHAPTER 2 GOD AND RELIGION 57

2.1 OVERVIEW: COD AND PHILOSOPHY 58

Why Religion Mat te rs 59

Ove rview: The Phi losopher’s Quest 59 Philosophy Now: Who Believes in God? 60 What Do You Believe? H ard-W ired for God? 63

Belief and D isbelief 64

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Ph i losophica l Views 66

2.2 ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF COD 66

Cosmological Arguments 66

AQUINAS: Summa Theologica 67 Philosophers at Work: St. T homas Aquinas 68 Philosophy Now: Science an d the Uncaused

Universe 69

CRAIG: Reasonable Faith 70

Design Argumen t s 72

PALEY: Natural Theology 72

HUME: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion 74 Philosophy Now: Do Scientists Reject Religion? 78

On to logical Arguments 79

ANSELM: Proslogium 79 Philosophy Now: Evo lution and Intelligent

Des ign 80

KANT: Critique of Pure Reason 83 Writing to Understand: Critiquing Ph i losophica l

Views 83

2.3 COD AND THE PROBLEM OF EVIL 84

Rowe’s Argumen t f rom Evil 84

ROWE: Philosophy of Religion 84

The Free W ill Defense 87

SWINBURNE: Is There a God? 87

The Sou l-Making Defense 88

HICK: Evil and the God of Love 88 Writing to Understand: Critiqui ng Philosoph ica l

Views 91

2.4 THEISM AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE 92

ST. TERESA OF AVILA: The Life of Teresa of Jesus 92

MACKIE: The Miracle of Theism 93 Philosophy Lab 94

ROWE: Philosophy of Religion 95 Philosophy Now: Proof of the Power of Prayer? 96

SWINBURNE: The Existence of God 97 Writing to Understand: Critiqui ng Philosoph ica l

Views 98

2.5 BELIEF WITHOUT REASON 98

James: Pragmatic Fait h 99

JAMES: “The W ill t o Believe” 100

MARTIN: Atheism: A Philosophical

Justification 106

Pasca l: Betting on God 106

What Do You Believe? Do You Live by Faith? 107

PASCAL: Pensees and Other Writings 107 Writing to Understand: Critiqui ng Philosoph ica l

Views 109

2.6 EASTERN RELIGIONS 109

Buddh i sm 109

SUMEDHO: Buddha-Nature 11 2

RAHULA: What the Buddha Taught 11 2 Philosophy Now: Bu ddhi sm and Science 114

H induism 116

Philosophy Now: The Caste System 120

Daoism 123

CHUANG TZU: All Things Are One 123

LAO-TZU: Tao -te ching 124 Writing to Understand: Critiqui ng Phi losoph ica l

Views 126

Contents x 1

x i i Contents

REVIEW NOTES 126

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own Views 129

KEY TERMS 129

FICTION: Art hur C. Clarke, “The St ar” 131

PROBING QUESTIONS 133

FOR FURTHER READING 134

CHAPTER 3 MORALITY AND THE MORAL LIFE 135

3.1 OVERVIEW: ETHICS AND THE MORAL DOMAIN 136

Eth ics and Moralit y 136

Moral Theo ries 139

Philosophy Now: Morality and the Low 141 Philosophy Now: The Moral ity of Human

Cloni ng 144

Religion an d Morality 146

SHAFER-LANDAU: Whatever Happened

to Good and Evil? 147 Writing to Understand: Critiquing Ph i losophica l

Vi ews 148

3.2 MORAL RELATIVISM 148

Su bjective Relativism 149

Cultural Relativism 151

What Do You Believe? Cu ltu ral Re lativi sm

an d Women’s Rights 152

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Ph i losophica l

Vi ews 155

3.3 MORALITY BASED ON CONSEQUENCES 155

Utilitar ian ism 156

MILL: “Wh at Uti lit arian ism Is” 158 Philosophy Now: Util ita riani sm an d the Death

Penalty 160

Philosophy Lab 164

Eth ical Ego ism 165

Philosophers at Work: John Stuart Mill 165 Philosophy Now: To rture and the Tick ing Bomb

Ter ro rist 166

Writing to Understand: Criti qui ng Philosoph ica l Views 169

3.4 M ORALITY BASED ON DUTY AND RIGHTS 169

KANT: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals 170 Writing to Understand: Critiqui ng Philosoph ica l

Views 175

3.5 MORALITY BASED ON CHARACTER 175

ARISTOTLE: Nicomachean Ethics 176

SHAFER-LANDAU: The Fundamentals of Ethics 180

Writing to Understand: Critiqui ng Philosoph ica l Views 181

3.6 FEMINIST ETHICS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE 181

JAGGAR: “Femin ist Eth ics” 182

CROSTHWAITE: “Gender and Bioethics” 182

HELD: The Ethics of Care 184

Philosophers at Work: M ar y Wo ll stonecraft 186

BAIER: “The Need for More T han Justice” 188 Writing to Understand: Critiqui ng Philosoph ica l

Views 188

3.7 ALBERT CAMUS: AN EXISTENTIALIST VOICE 188

CAMUS: The Myth of Sisyphus 190 Writing to Understand: Criti qui ng Philosoph ica l

Views 192

3.8 CONFUCIANISM 192

CONFUCIUS: Analects 193

NOSS: A History of the World’s Religions 195 Writing to Understand: Criti qui ng Philosoph ica l

Views 195

REVIEW NOTES 196

Writing to Understand: A rguing You r Own Views 198

KEY TERMS 198

FICTION: Ursula K. Le Guin, ” The Ones Who Wa lk Away

from Ornelas” 200

PROBING QUESTIONS 203

FOR FURTHER READING 203

Contents xi ii

x iv Contents

CHAPTER 4 MIND AND BODY 205

4.1 OVERVIEW: T HE M IND-BODY PROBLEM 206

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Ph iloso phica l

Vi ews 211

4.2 SUBSTANCE DUALISM 211

DESCARTES: Discourse on the Method of Rightly

Conducting the Reason 2 12

SCHICK: Doing Philosophy 212

DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy 213 What Do You Believe? T he Immortal Soul 2 14

SEARLE: Mind 216

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Ph iloso phica l Vi ews 217

4.3 MIND-BODY IDENTITY 217

SMART: “Sensations and Brain Processes” 217

CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind 2 18

NAGEL: “What Is It Like to Be a Bat?” 220 Writing to Understand: Critiquing Ph iloso phica l

Vi ews 221

4.4 THE M IND AS SOFTWARE 222

FODOR: “T he Mind-Body Problem” 222

BLOCK: “Troubles with Functionalism” 223

What Do You Believe? Al an d Human Rights 224

SEARLE: Mind 226

Philosophers at Work: Alan Turing 227 Philosophers at Work: John R. Searle 228 Writing to Understand: Critiquing Ph iloso phica l

Vi ews 229

Philosophy Now: A l, Ethics , an d War 230

4.5 THE MIND AS PROPERTIES 230

CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind 232 Philosophy Lab 233 Writing to Understand: Critiquing Ph iloso phica l

Vi ews 234

REVIEW NOTES 234

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own Views 235

KEY TERMS 236

FICTION: Terry Bisson, “They’re Made out of Meat” 237

PROBING QUESTIONS 238

FOR FURTHER READING 238

CHAPTER 5 FREE WILL AND DETERMIN ISM 240

5.1 OVERVIEW: THE FREE WILL PROBLEM 241

What Do You Believe? Fate 245 Writing to Understand: Critiquing Phi losoph ica l

Views 246

5.2 DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM 246

D’HOLBACH: “Of the System of Man’s Free Agency” 246

Philosophers at Work: Will iam James 248

JAMES: “The Dilemma of Determin ism” 249 Writing to Understand: Critiquing Phi losoph ica l

Views 250

5.3 COMPATIBILISM 250

LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 251

STACE: Religion and the Modern Mind 251 Philosophy Now: Does Belief in Free Will Matter? 252

ROWE: “Two Conce pts of Freedom” 254 Writing to Understand: Critiquing Phi losoph ica l

Views 255

5.4 LIBERTARIANISM 255

Philosophy Now: Science and Free Will 256

VAN INWAGEN: An Essay on Free Will 257 Philosophy Lab 258

TAYLOR: Metaphysics 258 Writing to Understand: Critiquing Phi losoph ica l

Views 261

5.5 SARTRE’ S PROFOUND FREEDOM 261

SARTRE: “Existen tialism Is a Humanism” 262

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Phi losoph ica l Views 266

Contents xv

xvi Contents

REVIEW NOTES 266

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own V iews 268

KEY TERMS 268

FICTION: Thomas D. Davis, “A Little Omniscience Goes

a Long Way” 270

PROBING QUESTIONS 273

FOR FURTHER READING 273

CHAPTER 6 KNOWLEDGE AND SKEPTICISM 274

6.1 OVERVIEW: THE PROBLEM OF KNOWLEDGE 275

What Do You Believe? Cognitive Re lativism Undone 277

Writing to Understand: Critiqu i ng Ph i losophica l

V i ews 280

6.2 THE RATIONALIST ROAD 281

Plat o’s Rat iona lism 281

PLATO: Meno 283

Desca rt es’ Dou bt 284

DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy 285 Philosophy Now: Livi ng in The Matrix 287 Philosophy Lab 288

Desca rt es’ Ce rt ainty 288

DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy 288

Philosophers at Work: Rene Desca rtes 290 Writing to Understand: Critiqu i ng Ph i losophica l

V i ews 292

6.3 THE EMPIRICIST TURN 293

Locke 293

LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human

Understanding 293

Ber keley 299

BERKELEY: Of the Principles of Human Knowledge 300

Hume 303 Philosophers at Work: David Hume 304

HUME: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 305

Writing to Understand: Crit iqui ng Phi losoph ica l Views 310

6.4 THE KANTIAN COMPROMISE 311

KANT: Critique of Pure Reason 312 Philosophers at Work: Immanuel Kant 313 Philosophy Now: Conceptua lizing the World 316 Writing to Understand: Crit i qui ng Phi losoph ica l

Views 319

6.5 A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON KNOWLEDGE 319

AINLEY: “Femin ist Phi losophy” 320

ANTONY: ” Embod iment and Epistemology” 320

ANDERSON: “Fem inist Epi st emology an d Ph iloso phy of Science” 321

COLE: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism 321 Writing to Understand: Crit iqui ng Phi losoph ica l

Views 325

REVIEW NOTES 325

Writing to Understand: A rguing You r Own Views 328

KEY TERMS 329

FICTION: Lewis Carroll, “Through the Looking- Glass” 330

PROBING QUESTIONS 330

FOR FURTHER READING 331

CHAPTER 7 AESTHETICS 332

7.1 OVERVIEW: PHILOSOPHY OF BEAUTY 333

Writing to Understand: Crit i qui ng Phi losoph ica l

Views 333

7.2 WHAT IS ART? 333

Philosophy Now: Is It Art? 334

BELL: Art 335 Writing to Understand: Crit i qui ng Phi losoph ica l

Views 335

Philosophy Now: Controve rsia l Ar t 336

Contents xv ii

xvii i Contents

7.3 AESTHETIC VALUE 338

Philosophers at Work: Ar thu r C. Dante 339 Writing to Understand: Critiqu i ng Ph i losophica l

Vi ews 34 0

7.4 PLATO, ARISTOTLE, AND HUME 340

ARISTOTLE: The Poetics 340 Philosophy Lab 341

HUME: Of the Standard of Taste 343 Philosophy Now: Fem ini st Art 344 Writing to Understand: Critiqu i ng Ph i losophica l

Vi ews 34 8

REVIEW NOTES 349

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own

Views 350

KEY TERMS 350

FICTION : Edgar All an Poe, “The Oval Portrait” 351

PROBING QUESTIONS 352

FOR FURTHER READING 352

CHAPTER 8 THE JUST SOCIETY 354

8.1 OVERVIEW: JUSTICE AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 355

What Do You Believe? Polit ica l Vi ews in

Flux 358 Writing to Understand: Critiqu i ng Ph i losophica l

Vi ews 359

8.2 PLATO ‘S THEORY: JUSTICE AS MERIT 360

PLATO: The Republic 361 Philosophy Now: Merit or Equa lity: Who Gets

to Live? 363

Writing to Understand: Critiqu i ng Ph i losophica l Vi ews 364

8.3 SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORIES 364

Hobbes 365

Philosophers at Work: Thomas Hobbes 365

HOBBES: Leviathan 366

Locke 370

LOCKE: Second Treatise of Government 371

Rawls 375 Philosophers at Work: John Locke 375

RAWLS: A Theory of justice 376 Writing to Understand: Crit i qui ng Phi losoph ica l

Views 378

8.4 SOCIALIST THEORIES 379

Philosophy Lab 380 Philosophy Now: Is the Unit ed States a Socialist

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