1. Change in Organizations

2. Planned Change Strategies

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3. Resistance to Change

4. High Performance Context of OB


6. Creating a High Performance Organization

7. Stages of Group Development

8. Input Foundations of Group Effectiveness

9. Team Building: Improving Team Processes

10. Managing Conflict



Change in Organizations

Unplanned change occurs spontaneously and without a change agent’s direction example: employees strike> action: act quickly to minimize any negative consequences

Planned change is intentional and occurs with a change agent’s direction. Example: new manager approach new technology to rise the org. performance and quality.


1.19 its recognized that they are highly intertwined in the workplace. Changes in any one are likely to require or involve changes in others example:

phases of planned change:

Unfreezing: situation is prepared for change

Example: people who are always on alert of the change process.

Changing: specific actions are taken to create change

Example: people, tasks, structure, or technology of the organization

Refreezing: changes are reinforced and stabilized

Explanation: Designed to maintain the momentum of a change and allows for modifications to be made in the change to increase its success over time.


Planned Change Strategies

Force– coercion strategy: uses authority, rewards and punishments to create change.

Rational persuasion strategy: uses facts, special knowledge, and rational argument to create change.

Shared-power strategy: uses participatory methods and emphasizes common values to create change.


Resistance to Change

“Its an attitude or behavior that shows unwillingness to make or support a change.”


1. Fear of the unknown

2. Lack of good information

3. Fear for loss of security

4. No reasons to change

5. Fear for loss of power

6. Lack of resources

7. Bad timing

8. Habit

Example: org. planing to change current computers, they may believe that they havebeen doing their jobs just fine and do not need the new computers to improve




Resistance to Change


High Performance Context of OB


Total quality management: is total commitment to high quality results, continuous improvement, and meeting customer needs.

Continuous improvement: is the belief that anything and everything done in the workplace should be continually improved.

Upside-down diagram view.

Customers & clients at the top of organization.

Workers directly affect customers & clients.

Team leaders & mid. managers directly support workers.

Top managers clarify mission &objectives, set strategies, & make resources available.


High Performance Context of OB


Generation X workers: “important workforce characteristics”:

impact of workers those born 1965-1977

”high level of skills & abilities for functioning well in challenging jobs &work settings”.

impact of poor educational preparation of some high school graduates

“Need training, which costly on organizations & they suffer long-term career disadvantages”

Empowerment: allows individuals or groups to make decisions that affect them or their work.

Knowledge workers: employees whose major task is to produce new knowledge, typically through computer oriented means.



High Performance Context of OB

changes in the way people work:

Stresses of downsizing & restructuring. Impact of information technology. New meanings in employer-employee relationships.

process reengineering:

Rethinks & radically redesigns business processes to stimulate innovation & change & improve performance.

Electronic commerce:

Transaction of business through the Internet.


Free agent economy.

Shamrock organizations.

Relatively small core group of permanent, full-time employees with critical skills.

Outside operators contracting to core group to perform essential daily activities.

Part-timers hired by core group on an as-needed basis.




Employee involvement (Decision making by employees enhances productivity & satisfaction)

Self-directing work teams (downsized entity with fewer Managers enhances satisfaction & utilizes employee expertise)

Integrated production technologies (technology makes manufacturing & services flexible or extensive use of computers, approach just-in-time)

Organizational learning (the way for organizations to adapt their settings to gather information to anticipate future changes)

Total quality management (Commitment to high quality results, continuous improvement, meeting customer needs)


Creating a Hi Performance Organization


Figure shows VF Corporation a largest apparel company, it has implemented the SAP Apparel Footwear Solution, (AFS) is a enterprise resource planning (ERP) that comprise the informational backbone of the supply chain, financial, master data, inventory management, costing, procurement, and planning. To avoid miscommunication

ERP Benefits:

provides information at greater levels of detail and accuracy and should result in lower costs

reports are easier to access and far more accurate & reducing human error

allows employees to access the details of any transaction

provides critical financial information on a much more timely basis directly to the users

system tie together everything from raw material ordering to supplying retailers.

system records & feeds back information across the enterprise in a very systematic way.


Stages of Group Development

1. Orientation (Forming): Group members are learning what to do, & seek guidelines and stated expectations.

2. Power Struggle (Storming): A things progress, it’s normal for some power struggles to emerge, they may challenge each other or the facilitators, This can be frustrating for everyone involved.

3. Cooperation and Integration (Norming): This is where being in group becomes fun and enjoyable most of the time. Group interaction becomes easier, more cooperative, & open communication.

4. Synergy (Performing): a sense of group unity, group members looking out for each other even outside of the group setting, deepening friendships or bonds, and a dynamic energy no matter what the task.

5. Closure (Adjourning): is able to disband, if required, when its work is accomplished, The adjourning stage of group development is especially important for the many temporary groups that are increasingly common in the new workplace, including task forces, committees, project teams and the like.

Ten criteria for measuring the maturity of a group:


Input Foundations of Group Effectiveness

An organization’s success depends largely on the performance of its internal networks of formal and informal groups.

groups, like organizations, pursue effectiveness by interacting with their environments to transform resource inputs into product outputs.

Key group inputs include the nature of the task, goals, rewards, resources, technology, membership diversity, and group size.


Team Building


The process begins when someone notices that a problem exists or may develop with team effectiveness.

Members then work together to gather data relating to the problem, analyze these data, plan for improvements, and implement the action plans.

The entire team-building process is highly collaborative.

Whether the data are gathered by questionnaire, interview, nominal group meeting, the goal is to get good answers.


Improving Team Processes


Distributed leadership: sharing of responsibility for meeting group task & maintenance needs.

Task activities: directly contribute to the performance of important tasks.

Maintenance activities: support the emotional life of the team as an ongoing social system.

Figure describes group task activities as the various things to the important group tasks.

such as initiating discussion, sharing or asking information. If these task activities are not adequate, the group will have difficulty accomplishing its objectives.


Managing Conflict


Most conflicts develop in stages, it is always best to deal with important conflicts so that they are completely resolved.

It is important to distinguish between perceived and felt conflict. When conflict is felt, it is experienced as tension that motivates the person to take action to reduce feelings of discomfort.

Unresolved substantive conflicts can result in sustained emotional discomfort and escalate into dysfunctional emotional conflict between individuals.


Managing Conflict


“Figure describes the 5 approaches to conflict management”

Avoidance involves pretending a conflict does not really exist.

Accommodation or smoothing involves playing down differences & finding areas of agreement.

Compromise occurs when each party gives up something of value to the other.

Competition seeks victory by force, superior skill, or domination.

Authoritative command uses formal authority to end conflict.To continue with the answer check on

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