Nursing Research Coding of Qualitative Data Essay
Nursing Research Coding of Qualitative Data Essay
Analyzing qualitative data after it has been collected begins with a process known as coding. This involves reviewing the data that was collected and identifying important passages and information. The researcher can then group those passages according to their respective topics and develop specific themes about those topics that are supported by the data. This process involves careful thought and a great deal of discipline. It is easy for researchers to manipulate passages and themes to support their hypotheses and expectations. This is problematic for several reasons: It promotes biased results, it limits the scope and depth of the analysis, and it makes the discussion and defense of the researcher’s techniques rather difficult.
This Discussion allows you to experience the processes of coding and analyzing qualitative data. In doing so, you should gain a deeper understanding of these techniques and their challenges.
- Select at least five of your classmates’ Introduction posts from the Class Café to code and analyze.
- Using the strategies presented in the Smith and Firth article, code your five selected postings by removing identifying information, coding the information, and identifying specific themes. As you begin the process, keep in mind that there is no right or wrong way of coding; however, your categories and associated data should—without heavy explanation—make sense to someone unfamiliar with your research.
- When you have completed coding the data, reflect on your experience of analyzing this type of data. Ask yourself: How can qualitative research methods promote evidence-based practice?
BY DAY 5
Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:
- Identify the overall themes you selected from coding the posts. Justify why you chose these particular themes. Try to be as scholarly as possible and remember that researchers try to refrain from directly identifying the subjects of their qualitative studies.
- Formulate a brief analysis and conclusion about your classmates’ Introduction posts based on the themes you identified.
- Discuss what you gained from your experiences with coding and analyzing qualitative data and how qualitative research can promote evidence-based practice.
issues in research Qualitative data analysis: the framework approach Abstract Qualitative methods are invaluable for exploring the complexities of health care and patient experiences in particular. Diverse qualitative methods are available that incorporate different ontological and epistemological perspectives. One method of data management that is gaining in popularity among healthcare researchers is the framework approach. We will outline this approach, discuss its relative merits and provide a working example of its application to data management and analysis. Authors Joanna Smith MSc, BSc(Hons) RSCN, RGN is lecturer in children and young people’s nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Salford, UK Jill Firth RGN, PhD is a senior research fellow at the School of Healthcare, University of Leeds, UK Keywords Qualitative research, framework approach, patient experiences Introduction The framework approach was developed in the 1980s by social policy researchers at the National Centre for Social Research as a method to manage and analyse qualitative data in applied policy research. In this context, the research brief is commissioned; aims and objectives are highly focused and the researchers work with structured topic guides to elicit and manage data. This approach contrasts with entirely inductive approaches, such as grounded theory, where the research is an iterative process and develops in response to the data obtained and ongoing analysis. More recently, the framework approach has been gaining in popularity as a means of analysing qualitative data derived from healthcare research because it can be used to manage qualitative data and undertake 52 NURSERESEARCHER 2011, 18, 2 analysis systematically. Nursing Research Coding of Qualitative Data Essay
This enables the researcher to explore data in depth while simultaneously maintaining an effective and transparent audit trail, which enhances the rigour of the analytical processes and the credibility of the findings (Ritchie and Lewis 2003). This article will provide an overview of the framework approach as a means of managing and analysing qualitative data. To illustrate its application, we will draw on a study undertaken by one of the authors (JS) as part of her programme of doctoral research investigating parents’ management of their children’s hydrocephalus and shunt. Context Delivering health care that is responsive to individual needs is an integral part of the modernisation agenda of the UK’s NHS. Policy directives for people with long-term conditions emphasise actively involving patients in the management of their conditions, valuing their expertise and working collaboratively with patients (Department of Health (DH) 2001, 2005, 2007). When the patient is a child, this includes understanding the views and experiences of their parents. The potential benefits of this involvement include: empowering patients to take control of their health needs, better mutual understanding for patients and healthcare professionals, and patients influencing the healthcare agenda (Simpson 2006). Qualitative approaches are appropriate for exploring the complexities of health and wellbeing and can help in creating an in-depth understanding of the patient experience. Debates about the epistemological and ontological perspectives underpinning qualitative methods can overshadow the need to ensure that qualitative studies are methodologically robust. Published qualitative research often lacks transparency in relation to the analytical processes employed, which hinders the ability of the reader to critically appraise the studies’ findings (Maggs-Rapport 2001). This is not to say that the research is not of good quality, but there are sometimes weaknesses in reporting that make evaluation problematic. For the novice researcher, a framework to guide the stages of the data analysis has the potential to assist in developing the skills required to undertake robust qualitative data analysis. Approaches to qualitative data analysis Methods for undertaking qualitative data analysis can be divided into three categories: NURSERESEARCHER 2011, 18, 2 53 issues in research n Sociolinguistic methods, such as discourse and conversation analysis, that explore the use and meaning of language. n Methods, typified by grounded theory, that focus on developing theory. n Methods, such as content and thematic analysis, that describe and interpret participants’ views. Despite the diversity of qualitative methods, data are often obtained through participant interviews. Nursing Research Coding of Qualitative Data Essay