Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
Write an APA paper that discusses each of the AACN Essentials and describe how you met each essential. Incorporate evidence from your previous Nursing Evolution assignments, as well as detailed examples from your didactic, skills lab, and clinical rotations.
For each essential include the following:
- A brief summary explanation of the essential that is cited with at least one scholarly source
- At least one example of how you met the essential during your nursing program
I have provided a document with the AACN Essentials.
Faculty Tool Kit NURSE FACULTY TOOL KIT FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BACCALAUREATE ESSENTIALS February 19, 2009 Table of Contents Page Overview 2 Integrative Learning Strategies Essential I Essential II Essential III Essential IV Essential V Essential VI Essential VII Essential VIII Essential IX 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 10 Opportunities for Program Enhancement 11 Helpful Web links, including Stakeholders 19 AACN Presentations 22 References/Bibliography 23 1 OVERVIEW The purpose of the Baccalaureate Essentials Tool Kit is to provide resources and exemplars to assist faculty with the implementation of the Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice (2008). The tool kit provides integrative learning strategies, opportunities for program enhancement, and resources that will assist faculty with the integration of the Baccalaureate Essentials throughout the nursing curriculum. This tool kit includes a review of the nine Baccalaureate Essentials followed by Integrative Learning Strategies, Opportunities for Program Enhancement, Web Links, AACN Presentations, and References. Baccalaureate Essentials Essentials I through IX delineate the outcomes expected of graduates of baccalaureate nursing programs. Achievement of these outcomes will enable graduates to practice within complex healthcare systems and assume the roles: provider of care; designer/manager/coordinator of care; and member of a profession. The nine Essentials are: • Essential I: Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice o A solid base in liberal education provides the cornerstone for the practice and education of nurses. • Essential II: Basic Organizational and Systems Leadership for Quality Care and Patient Safety o Knowledge and skills in leadership, quality improvement, and patient safety are necessary to provide high quality health care. • Essential III: Scholarship for Evidence Based Practice o Professional nursing practice is grounded in the translation of current evidence into practice. • Essential IV: Information Management and Application of Patient Care Technology o Knowledge and skills in information management and patient care technology are critical in the delivery of quality patient care. • Essential V: Healthcare Policy, Finance, and Regulatory Environments o Healthcare policies, including financial and regulatory, directly and indirectly influence the nature and functioning of the healthcare system and thereby are important considerations in professional nursing practice. • Essential VI: Interprofessional Communication and Collaboration for Improving Patient Health Outcomes o Communication and collaboration among healthcare professionals are critical to delivering high quality and safe patient care. • Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
Essential VII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health o Health promotion and disease prevention at the individual and population level are necessary to improve population health and are important components of baccalaureate generalist nursing practice. 2 • • Essential VIII: Professionalism and Professional Values o Professionalism and the inherent values of altruism, autonomy, human dignity, integrity, and social justice are fundamental to nursing. Essential IX: Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice o The baccalaureate-graduate nurse is prepared to practice with patients, including individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations across the lifespan and across the continuum of healthcare environments. o The baccalaureate graduate understands and respects the variations of care, the increased complexity, and the increased use of healthcare resources inherent in caring for patients (AACN, 2008). INTEGRATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES Achievement of outcomes delineated in the Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice (2008) is enhanced through the intentional use of active, collaborative, and integrative learning strategies. The American Association of Colleges & Universities (AAC&U 2004) defines Integrative Learning Strategies as powerful, active, and collaborative instructional methods that thread general education concepts throughout the major. Integrative learning strategies, as used in this document, expand on this definition and includes the integration of: • liberal education throughout the nursing curriculum • practice with theory • practice knowledge and theory across essentials • active learning strategies throughout the curriculum • interprofessional learning opportunities; and • learning activities across academic disciplines The purpose of this document is to provide nursing programs with examples of educational approaches that actively engage the learner and integrate liberal education, nursing science, clinical reasoning, and ethical considerations into both classroom and clinical learning. These examples are provided as a starting point to develop learning activities for the preparation of entry-level professional nurses and may be relevant to more than one essential. The learning strategies include a variety of methods, such as unfolding case studies, simulation, and reflective practice exercises to assist with implementation of a well-integrated curriculum based on the AACN’s Baccalaureate Essentials. By their nature, integrative learning strategies listed in this document may address more than one of the Baccalaureate Essentials. The following integrative learning strategies were developed by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Task Force on the Revision of the Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice with input from participants at regional meetings held across the Unites States in 2007-2008. Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
These strategies are consistent with the work of the AAC&U (2007) and the Carnegie Foundation’s (In press) ongoing work on education in the professions. 3 Examples of Integrative Learning Strategies Essential I: Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice • • • • • • • • • • • Provide local, national, and international experiences, framed by reflective questions, in a variety of cultures, organizations, and communities. Promote activities and projects with students from the arts, humanities, and sciences to address community issues or problems. Use collaborative learning projects to build communication and leadership skills. Engage in community-based activities to promote ethical reasoning, advocacy, collaboration, and social justice. Provide opportunities to reflect on one’s own actions and values to promote ongoing self-assessment and commitment to excellence in practice. Provide guided exploration of diverse philosophies, ways of knowing, and intellectual approaches to problem solving. Use simulation exercises and case-based scenarios with students from other academic disciplines such as history, religion, business, and engineering. Provide direct experiences integrating artistic ways of knowing such as the arts, cinema, poetry, literature, and music to enhance the practice of nursing. Provide opportunities to observe and participate in various cultures through study abroad. Participate in interprofessional service learning activities such as health promotion and disease prevention projects for diverse populations. Use writing intensive assignments to promote reflection, insight, and integration of ideas across disciplines and courses. Essential II: Basic Organizational and Systems Leadership for Patient Safety and Quality Care • • Provide leadership experiences in a variety of organizations and communities. Provide opportunities for students to: o Engage in practice settings to build communication and leadership skills. o Communicate with recognized leaders to solve healthcare practice problems. o Develop a leadership or quality improvement project that spans several courses (e.g., review literature about a practice problem in one course, propose a practice change based on an evidence-based model in a second course, and then present the practice change to appropriate stakeholders in a third course). o Shadow a leader and reflect on the experience. o Engage in quality improvement/patient safety activities to promote an understanding of the organizational process, unit application, and evaluation process. 4 o Participate in quality improvement activities and/or required regulatory reporting systems. o Participate in interprofessional performance improvement team currently working on implementation/evaluation of national patient safety goals. o Propose an innovative solution to a system-related patient care problem identified in one’s clinical practice. o Conduct a mock root cause analysis on a near miss and share results with staff or shared governance council. o Participate in an actual Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and/or Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA). o Role-play with nursing and medical students using Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation (SBAR) communication o Attend a professional nursing organization meeting and identify personal development opportunities. o As students examine various microsystem committees, identify one for more in-depth exploration. Essential III:Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
Scholarship for Evidence-Based Practice • • • • • • • • Ask students to select a clinical topic, search for evidence, and identify the level of evidence for each sample of evidence. Create journal clubs where students critique a primary nursing research article and its relevance to their clinical practice. Group students according to a clinical issue of interest, conduct a systematic review, and debate the rigor of selected research studies. Use controversial case studies to promote discussion about decision making and the evidence that supports those decisions (e.g., If you dropped the patient’s last pill, and each pill costs $35 …would you use it? or if a terminally ill patient asks you if he is dying, would you be truthful?). Collaborate with librarians to conduct comprehensive and efficient searches on clinical topics. Provide a sample of nursing journals and ask students to identify a research article and determine the type and level of evidence included. Assign student peer review of a student colleague’s paper. Provide opportunities/assignments for student to: o Identify clinical questions in PICO (Patient problem, Intervention, Compare, Outcome) format and conduct searches for current evidence using the PubMed PICO search feature. o Examine the evidence for an existing policy or procedure using multiple sources (e.g. Cochrane, AHRQ, CINAHL, PubMed). o Apply specific criteria to evaluate health information resources for lay and professional use as well as to discuss the ethical implications of commercial sources that target laypersons. 5 o Collaborate with clinical partners to identify practice problems, formulate evidence-based conclusions and recommendations, and present findings in poster format to staff and class. o Apply evidence-based practice models to assess the applicability and feasibility of new findings to practice. o Cite sources of evidence for planned interventions. o For assigned patients, compare observed practices with published practice standards. o Link how individual nursing actions are related to recognized nurse sensitive quality indicators. Essential IV: Information Management and Application of Patient Care Technology • Provide opportunities/assignments for students to: o Use information and patient care technology to communicate effectively with members of the healthcare team. o Use clinical evidence and research to base and validate practice decisions related to information management and patient care technology. o Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
Participate in quality improvement activities and required regulatory reporting through information systems. o Employ a range of technologies that support patient care, such as electronic health and medical records, patient monitoring systems, and medication administration systems. o Use simulation and electronic medical records to access and analyze data relevant to the patient situation. o Use information technology resources such as Wiki, Second Life simulation, or SkyScape.com to communicate with other healthcare professionals or students in other disciplines regarding a joint project. o Develop a professional e-portfolio. Essential V: Healthcare Policy, Finance, and Regulatory Environments • Provide opportunities/assignments for students to: o Observe a state board of nursing hearing and reflect on how the state practice act protects the welfare and safety of the citizens. o Participate with national or state nursing associations in activities such as “lobby day”. o Review proposed legislation affecting health care and provide written comments. o Attend national or state congressional hearings on healthcare issues. o Observe testimony at a state legislative or regulatory hearing on a healthcare issue focusing on access to care or patient advocacy. 6 o Provide written or verbal feedback on the ethical, financial, and social implications of the testimony observed and recommended policy changes. o Compare the costs of common diagnostic tests, procedures, and medications charged to insurance companies vs. self-pay patients. o Explore the costs and availability of care options for patients with dementia or a psychiatric/mental health illness in your local community. (What does private health insurance cover? Medicaid? Medicare?). o Develop a lobbying plan for an identified issue that includes a concise (30 seconds or less) oral synopsis for a decision maker and a one-page policy memo. o Participate in advocating for change in policy related to a selected healthcare issue at the local, state, or national level. o As an interprofessional group, role play a legislator, proponent and opponent for a healthcare or professional issue. o Analyze a hospital bill for one day of care in an acute setting and identify where nursing services are embedded. o Compare one or more healthcare systems in other countries with the U.S. system, including costs, services provided, and outcomes, (e.g., pre-and postnatal care, role of midwife and other healthcare professionals/workers, insurance coverage, maternity/paternity leave). o As an interprofessional group, develop a policy (new or revised) to address an issue identified in a practice setting. Delineate processes for getting policy adopted and implemented within that practice setting. Essential VI: Interprofessional Communication and Collaboration for Improving Patient Health Outcomes • Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
Provide opportunities/assignments for students to: o Engage in case study discussions/dialogue with a variety of healthcare and other professionals. o Participate in interprofessional collaboration (e.g., grand rounds, community coalition meetings). o Work in interprofessional and intraprofessional teams on course projects/assignments. o Engage in interprofessional and intraprofessional care in simulation labs. o Develop interprofessional community projects. o Assess group dynamics of an interprofessional or intraprofessional group . o After attending a professional meeting of another healthcare profession, compare and contrast professional perspectives. o Participate on interprofessional teams at national competitions (e.g., Clarion Interprofessional Team Case Competition at the University of Minnesota, National Student Nurses Association). o Participate in campus-wide student governance and committees. o Organize activities for National Primary Care Week as a student ambassador. 7 Essential VII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health for Optimizing Health • Provide opportunities/assignments for students to: o Analyze health behavior(s) of self or others using models or theories. o Participate in individually-focused clinical prevention activities such as: teaching about and providing immunizations improving adherence to tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis through health teaching and directly observed therapies providing health counseling regarding smoking cessation, stress management, exercise, and diet teaching about and encouraging cancer screening conducting basic environmental exposure history regarding pesticides conducting basic genetic health screening and referring high risk individuals to genetic services assessing a home environment and health counseling to prevent falls in older adults identifying and intervening in elder abuse; o Use clinical practice guidelines for planning and/or evaluating clinical prevention interventions. o Participate in community or population-focused assessment. o Participate in development of plans and policies to effectively prepare a community for disasters or to protect vulnerable populations during disasters. o Help organizations and communities create healthy environments such as smoke- free workplaces. o Teach vulnerable populations about avoiding environmental risks. o Collaborate with institutions, such as day care centers or homeless shelters, to develop and implement policies to minimize transmission of communicable diseases. o Participate in a community disaster drill. o Develop a policy memo to address a health issue identified in the community. o Advocate for policy change regarding a health issued identified in the community. o Initiate an interprofessional going-green campaign to improve environmental health. Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice