Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

compare and contrast the two nursing theories: Jean Watson theory of human caring and leininger cultural care theory

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Jean Watson born in 1940 earned a diploma from Lewis Gale Hospital School of Nursing in Roanoke, VA. Watson furthered her education and attended the University of Colorado for her BSN, MSN in psychiatric-mental health nursing and Ph.D. in educational psychology and counseling. Watson has held numerous positions at the University of Colorado as both faculty and administrator. Watson served as faculty at the University of Colorado Health Science Center, dean of the School of Nursing, and fouding Dorector of the center for Human Caring.


Watson’s first publication was in 1979 and this was the introduction of the theory of Transpersonal Caring to the nursing profession. Watson’s theory focuses on preserving the dignity and wholeness of humanity. Transpersonal Caring theory evolved from Watson’s own personal values, beliefs, and perceptions regarding human life, health, and healing. (Walker, 1996, p. 144) Watson views nursing as a “collective caring-healing role and its mission in society as attending to, and helpting to sustain, humanity and wholeness” (Walker, 1996, p. 144). The thoery is meant to be a worldview or ethic by which nursing could know its traditions in health and healing. Watson views nursing as an human science academic discipline and as an clinical profession. The theory views nursing as a societal mission “to caring and healing work with others during their most vulnerable moments of life’s journey” (Walker, 1996, p. 145). The theory analyzes caring independently from curing. The discipline of caring and healing are derived from the arts and humanities.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

Watson’s theory was based on Nightingale’s healing environment concept. The theory evolved from the belief that an individual’s environment affects their healing. The theory began as a philosophy and was never meant to be a testable theory. Watson’s goal for the theory is to move nursing from the belief that the human body is a machine to the belief that the “interdependent and nondiscrete nature of a world and the spiritual nature of humans is of paramount importance” (Watson, 1985, p. 1) Watson defines health as harmony, and illness as disharmony within the mind, body, and spirit. Eastern philosophy influenced Watson’s theory on health and illness. In Watson’s later works her influence was the Chaos Theory by Kellert and the quantum physics and mechanics by Pelletier (Walker, 1996, p. 191)

Watson’s goal is to serve as a bridge by which nursing will transition from a biomedical/natural-science model to a postmodern/human-science perspective. Watson believes language is the key to transitiong nursing from the biomedical/natural-science model to the postmodern/human -science model (Walker, 1996, p. 146) Watson (1999) believed nursing is a discipline devoted to caring, health, and healing. Watson’s theory has continued to evolve in regards to her concepts. The main components of her origninal theory are: transpersonal caring relationship; ten carative factors; and caring occasion/caring moment. These components defined her orignial concept of transpersonal caring  Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

human-to-human connectedness occurring in a nurse-patient encounter wherein each is touched by the human center of the other” (Watson, 1985). In Watson’s updated theory new dimensions evolved and included the concept that “the caring-healing modalities potentiate harmony, wholeness, and confort, and promote inner healing by releasing some of the disharmony and blocked energy that interfere with the natural healing processes” (Walker, 1996, p. 151)

The transpersonal caring relationship is a strong relationship between nurse and patient. The relationship is a unique relationship for the both the nurse and patient. A nurse enters “into the life space or phenomenal field of another person and is able to detect the other person’s condition of being (spirit, or soul level), feels this condition within self, and respons in such a way that the person being cared for has a release of feelings, thought , and tension” (Walker, 1996, p. 152). Watson believes the necessary knowledge and sensitivity a nurse needs to build a transpersonal caring relationship with their patient can be gained through work with other cultures, study of the humanities, and exploration of one’s own values, beliefs, and relationship with self (Walker, 1996, p. 153). Watson wanted the theory to apply to all nurses in any situation and make use of its carative factors in implements and delivering quality nursing care.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

The first limitation in Watson’s theory is the lack of relevancy to today’s nursing. Due to the acuity of illness and nurse patient ratios following Watson’s theory doesn’t seem practical. Watson’s model continuously focuses on the “spirit”, and has a lack of emphasis on the physical entities of an individual. Watson’s model would deem difficult to practice for nurses who focus care on the physical aspects and the treatment of illness. Watson’s theory focuses on the human care process and not on the therapeutic nature of care (Rafael, 2000, p. 402) Individuals who believe the physical is separate from the spiritual may find this theory unpractical. Watson continuously focuses on the psychosial aspects and need of patients, and this is a secondary concern in the current state of nursing practice.

Watson’s theory also deems itself to be impractical because it calls for a level of care that is simply impossible in an environment where there is a high acuity of illness, short hospital stays due to lack of insurance, and an increased level of technology which limits the amount of time needed to spend with a patient. In the current business focused era and a bureaucratic health care system, Watson’s model would prove to be extremely difficult for nurses to implement. “The broad gap between the nurse caring process and the clinical reality, have some authors suggesting that this gap reduces clinical relevance.” (Morse, Solberg, Neander, Bottorff, & Johnson, 1990, p. 8) Nurses would find current hospital policies and practices would limit their flexibility to implement this theory. The health system follows a different set of values and beliefs and would stand as a barrier for nurses whom choose to follow these principles. Implementation of Watson’s theory would require a change from the public and movement away from the idea of treatment and towards healing and caring. Watson’s theory would require the restructuring of our entire health system, and rebuilding into a healing focused health care system.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

Watson’s theory has been criticized by many, but is transformative and brings the caring aspect back to nursing. The theory guides the nurse to focus on the individual and requires the selective use of technology. The theory requires the use of technology only for the enhancement of healthcare practices, and not as the sole guiding factor in healthcare. Watson insists that the nurse focuses on the subjective experience of the patient, to facilitate “restoring inner harmony and potential healing” (Morse et al., 1990, p. 9) Watson calls the nurse to go beyond the duties of providing standard quality of care, but requires the nurse to provide soul satisfying care. Watson believes it is morally imperative and an obligation to care for the patient and their spiritual needs, regardless of the nurse’s experience or abilities. This notion also coincides with Leininger’s Culture Care theory in requiring the nurse to provide non-judgmental and non-biased culturally competent care.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

Watson’s theory allows the nurse to be flexible in their practice. The theory doesn’t require the nurse to follow a set standard or tool. Transpersonal Caring theory focuses on the individual and not the disease or illness. The theory allows the nurse to utilize different interaction methods with different individuals. The theory grants the nurse the ability to adjust their approach and style of care based on the needs of each individual as separate entities and apart from their disease. The adjustment allows the nurse to have a transpersonal moment with their patient in which “one’s mind-bod- soul engages with another’s mind-body-soul in a lived moment. Here a spiritual union is felt with the other person” (Rafael, 2000, p. 402) Watson brings the patient back to focus and eliminates the other common distractors such as technology and illness. By eliminating these distractors Watson is allowing the nurse to meet each patient’s physical and spiritual needs.

Betty Neuman: The Neuman Systems Model
Betty Neuman born in 1924 in Ohio received her nursing diploma from Peoples Hospital in 1947 in Akron, Ohio. Neuman later received her B.S. in public health nursing in 1957 and her M.S. public-mental health in 1966 from UCLA. In 1985 she obtained her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Pacific Western University. Neuman has worked as a bedside nurse, teach, author, lecturer, and consultant. Neuman was the first nurse licensed in California as a marriage and family counselor. The Neuman Systems Model was developed in 1970 in response to graduate students’ requests for a course that would provide an overview of the physiological, psychological, sociocultural, and developmental aspects of human beings (Fawcett, 2001, p. 211). The model was first published in 1972 and five editions have been published with the last edition in 2010.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

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The model was established during the period of general systems theory and is a holistic model based upon interactions and relationships. Neuman’s System Model consists of two major components stress and the reaction to stress (Neuman, 1995, p. 22). The model has four major concepts in relation to nursing which are: human being/individual, environment, health, and nursing. The model is an open system and defines the individual as a human being, the community, or a family. The goal of the system is to maintain balance and stability. Neuman allows the individual to maintain balance by utilizing resources within and outside of the system, or eliminate internal or external factors that affect the individual’s ability to maintain stability. Factors that disrupt an individual’s ability to maintain stability are called stressors. Neuman views stressors as either negative or positive and deem them capable of having this same effect on the individual. The model requires the individual to utilize and exchange with its environment. The individual may adjust itself according to the environment or adjust the environment as long as the ultimate goal of stability is met.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

The physiological psychological, sociocultural, developmental and spiritual factors are considered the core of the model. If the individual has maintained stability then these factors functions harmoniously amongst each other in spite of environment and stressors. Neuman believes when these factors are working together harmoniously and optimal stability has been attained then the individual has also obtained a greater level of wellness. Neuman utilizes wellness and health interchangeably and identifies these factors as “optimal system stability, or the optimal state of wellness at a given time (Neuman, 1990, p. 129). The levels of health vary and is based upon the individual’s response to its environment and stressors. The model identifies illness and death as requiring more energy that what is available, and wellness as requiring less energy than what is available or generated (Neuman, 1990, p. 129)Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

Neuman utilizes prevention at the levels of primary, secondary, and tertiary to maintain stability (Fawcett, 2001, p. 213). Primary prevention is health promotion and maintenance and is utilized when a risk is identified and before its onset. Secondary prevention occurs after the risks onset and is utilized to prevent further injury and disability. If secondary prevention is unable to maintain stability the individual will move towards tertiary prevention. Tertiary prevention is maintaining maximum stability even with a disability to promote health and return to primary prevention.

Neuman defines nursing as helping the individual’s system “attain, maintain, or retain system stability” (Fawcett, 2001, p. 211). Neuman identifies the job of the nurse to accurately assess the individual and identify the stressors to their system, and assist the individual in making adjustments that will promote optimal health and wellness. By identifying and assisting the nurse stands as the linkage between the individual’s system, its environment, and health. The nurse’s interventions are aimed at helping the individual maintain a level of stability. The level of stability must be maintained under the conditions of the environment and possibly stressors if the factors are unable to be eliminated. The nurse must assist the individual in maintaining stability under these conditions and minimize the amount of energy consumed by the individual. The model identifies a three-step process for the nurse and consists of the nursing diagnosis, nursing goals, and nursing outcomes. The “Nursing Diagnosis” consists of the assessment and diagnosis of each individual. The second step “Nursing Goals” consists of the identification and planning phase. The final step “Nursing Outcomes” is the implementation and evaluation phase. (Fawcett, 2001, pp. 212-213)Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

The major weakness identified in Neuman’s model is the ambiguity of the terms used in the model. Clarification is needed regarding the terms interpersonal stressors, extrapersonal stressors, and reaction. Gigliotti (2003) noted that “linking statements (relational propositions) between stressors and the environment should be clearer” (Gigliotti, 2003, p. 203). The reader can assume that interpersonal stressors occur between two people and extrapersonal stresors occur between a group or society and the person, but this is not clearly defined in Neuman’s literature. “Hoffman (1982) analyzed the NSM and explored its use for theory construction concluding that the concepts of the NSM were defined and proposed that concept interrelations be further investigated so that relational hypotheses could be formulated” (Gigliotti, 2003, p. 203). The differentiation between interpersonal and extrapersonal is not clear. The pictorial diagram of Neuman Systems Model includes the term reaction, but in the original model the term reaction is not clearly defined or discussed.

The second weakness identified in Neuman’s model is the inconsistence use of the concepts health, environment and nursing. Neuman’s literature identifies health, environment, and nursing as major concepts within the model, but these concepts do not appear in the model’s diagram. Neuman’s diagram is considered to be an important representation of her model, but major concepts are eliminated from the model. Gigliotti (2003) “noted that the definitions of essential concepts that Neuman had then supplied were adequate but the definitions of health, environment, and nursing needed clarification” (Gigliotti, 2003, p. 203). Major concepts stated and continuously used within Neuman’s literature should be identifiable and noted within the pictorial explanation of the model.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

A major strength in Neuman’s model is its ability to be widely used within nursing. Neuman reports that the model was designed for nursing but can be used by other health disciplines (Fawcett, 2001, p. 212). If all nurses and other disciplines utilize this model then a consistent approach to health care will be facilitated. If all disciplines utilize the same model, established by Neuman, perhaps redundancy and errors will be limited across health care disciplines. Redundancy would be eliminated and the patient would only have to explain their needs or story once to all health care disciplines, rather than, having to tell the same story many different times.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

The second strength in Neuman’s model is not only can it be used across other health care disciplines, but can be utilized within all areas of nursing. Neuman’s model is flexible in the sense that it can be used in the areas of research, administration, education, and clinical practice all within nursing. The third edition of Neuman’s model highlights the use of the model in all areas of nursing throughout the United States, Australia, Canada, England, Holland, Sweden and Wales (Fawcett, 2001, p. 211). The widespread use of this model illustrates its universal applicability. Neuman highlights this applicability as crucial during the current state, in which, the nursing profession has an increased need for unity within the discipline. Neuman believes the “systematic Nursing Process format has been especially relevant as a guide for practice, despite all of the social and professional changes that nursing continues to experience” (Fawcett, 2001, p. 212).Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

In latest years more than a few issues pertinent to the expansion of nursing information have been addressed. These comprise of uncovering experiences considered innermost to nursing and the nursing theories and models that have stemmed from them (Meleis 1997, Fawcett 1993, 1995, Chinn & Kramer 1995). Caring as an imperative perception within nursing is gaining increasing concentration in the text (Kyle 1995, Lea & Watson 1996, McCance et al. 1997). Additionally, a variety of theories have been offered in the prose, which have caring as a vital thought and are based on a human knowledge point of view.

These embrace Leiningers (1991) Theory of Culture Care, Watsons (1985) Theory of Human Caring, Boykin & Schoenhofers (1993) Theory of Nursing as Caring and Roachs (1984) theory on caring. However, it is the intention within this paper to explain the theory of caring in nursing as in a form that focuses in the concept of transpersonal, humanity and caring health care providers. I will be using this theory on Acute Care Advance Nurse Practioner, in the Critical Care setting. Further I will draw comparisons transversely four caring theories as exposed in Table 1, with the aim of examining them in terms of their likenesses and disparities and to believe their helpfulness in nursing practice.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay


The theoretical perceptions on caring have been explained in the text mutually as molds and as theories. McKenna (1997) highlights the uncertainty among these terms and classifies two schools of reflection in connection to the approach they are defined. Spot A backed by Fawcett (1995), supports a ladder of theoretical growth with a model measured more theoretical than a hypothesis. on the other hand, position B advocated by theorists such as Meleis (1997) and Stevens-Barnum (1994), advocates the view that all conceptualizations are hypothesis, but at diverse stages of progress.


Jean Watsons assumption on caring was first available in 1979 in a manuscript entitled Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring. This volume symbolized premature stages in the improvement of her hypothesis that was to be prolonged 6 years afterwards in Nursing: Human Science and Human Care (Watson 1985). Watson expresses nursing as a soul science, with the main spotlight being the practice of human care for persons, families and groups. Her hypothesis is based on a shape of humanism and has its beginning in metaphysics (viewpoint of life form and knowing).Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

The aim of nursing inside Watsons (1985) caring theory, as offered in Table 1, has its axis about helping public to achieve a higher level of harmony within the intellect, body and spirit. She preserves that this purpose is achieved through caring business. Watsons ten carative features, referred to as the interference of the theory, are accessible in Table 2. She in addition refers to transpersonal caring which is expressed as an superlative of intersubjectivity in which in cooperation persons [nurse and tolerant] are drawn in (Watson 1985 p. 60). Transpersonal caring is established in an occurrence or genuine caring circumstance.

Neil & Schroeder (1992) and Schroeder (1993), who articulated the Denver Nursing Project, present an illustration of the sensible submission of Watsons theory on individual caring. The scheme spotlights on an outpatient hub for people existing with HIV and AIDS which makes use of Watsons effort as the foundation for teaching, clinical practice and follow a line of investigation. The job declaration for the Center reflects Watsons philosophy, articulating esteem for the exceptionality and independence of each human being and faith that fitness and comfort are multidimensional (Neil & Schroeder 1992 p. 105).Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

The thought that human beings remedial processes can be supported through genuine caring relationships is also fundamental to the labor carried out in the Center. The force of the mission together in terms of price and in excellence of life for persons existing with HIV/AIDS has been assessed using equally qualitative and quantitative techniques. The consequences specified that the possible price savings of the Center are important due to, for instance, reduced length of rest home stay and nurses aptitude to put off hospital admittance. Findings from the assessment missions highlight, more prominently, the abridged level of person suffering resultant from a caring bond.


In order to contrast and contrast theories Stevens-Barnum (1994) talked about the exercise of commonplaces, a phrase that points to a expansive stadium without specifying its substance. When the elements of a number of theories are arranged into commonplaces, then it is probable to contrast and compare them.

In addition, she states that at the same time as hypothesis analysts make their individual sets of commonplaces there is no one correct set. The reality of this preserve noted if one looks at the job of nurse meta-theorists (Meleis 1997, Fawcett 1993, 1995, Steven-Barnum 1994, Marriner-Tomey 1994).Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

In relative to the assumptions on caring, Leininger and Watsons hypothesis have been examined by Fitzpatrick & Whall (1996), Marriner-Tomey (1994), Fawcett (1993) and George (1995). Boykin & Schoenhofers effort, which is measured a fairly new caring theory, has only been evaluated in a new text by George (1995). This paper offers to judge against and contrast the caring theories in relation to individuals commonplaces that the authors regard as relevant. Table 1 current the commonplaces used for association purposes, counting: origin of theory; scale of theory; classification of caring; explanation of nursing; key perceptions of the theory; and aim/outcome. in addition, ease is also considered and argued in relation to each hypothesis.


Span, according to McKenna (1997), relates to how the hypothesis can be functional and its quantity of abstractedness. On test of the four caring suppositions, Watsons and Leiningers theories are more superior in their growth than those of Roach and Boykin and Schoenhofer. This is obvious not only from the capacity of the theories, but also from a contrast of other standards.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

For instance, Table 1 exemplifies that Roach and Boykin describe caring rather theoretically and Schoenhofer weighed against to those definitions offered by Leininger and Watson. Nevertheless, it should be prominent that there is incongruity among meta-theorists as to the capacity of Leininger and Watsons theories. Fawcett (1993) categorizes Leiningers conjecture as a magnificent theory and Watsons as middle variety expressive theory. on the other hand, Marriner-Tomey (1994) analysis Leiningers theory as a middle range supposition and Watsons as a idea. While opinions differ from philosophies to magnificent theories to center range theories it would be factual to speak that Watsons and Leiningers works present caring in a lesser amount of conceptual way.


The metaphors of caring accessible in Table 1, and as a result the meaning of nursing, imitate the humanistic environment of nursing. Nursing is also definite in terms of caring behavior that fit in a variety of skills. For instance, Watson (1985) highlights expert, personal, technical, aesthetic and moral human care dealings, while Roach (1984) things to see cognitive, effectual, scientific and managerial skills. Moreover, on assessment of definitions of gentle and nursing one can recognize a dual constituent to caring in treatment ” attitudes and standards on one hand and actions on the other.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay


On appraisal of the explanation concepts inside Roach and Watsons theories, the double constituent becomes obvious. For instance, Roachs five Cs of caring include principles and capability, highlighting approach and knowledge. Likewise, Watsons carative issues comprise values vital in the helping connection, in concert with the skills obligatory in nursing such as crisis solving and the stipulation of physical care. A closing point to be stressed is the significance and assessment placed on the nurse-patient bond contained by the four theories on caring. This places interest on the essential human aspect within nursing and, as confirmed formerly, the humanistic focal point of these presumptions.


While the beginning of the caring theories vary to some extent, they all draw from from human skill regulations such as anthropology. It is also obvious that everyone has been based upon the principle that nursing is a soul science. Watson (1985 p. 16) draws a quantity of main beliefs on which a human science background is founded:Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

Watson (1985) plainly states that the importance structure relating to her assumption is based on the standards fundamental to human care and individual science in nursing. Likewise, Boykin and Schoenhofer (1993 p. 15) affirm that their presumption views nursing as a shape of human discipline that focuses on the information needed to comprehend the comprehensiveness of what it means to be individual and on the techniques to confirm this knowledge.

Leininger (1991) and Roach (1984), while not openly stating the sight that nursing is a person discipline, show ideas regular with this idea. Roach rows that caring is the person mode of life form, with nursing as the specialization of human caring. Leininger also analysis caring as a humanistic form of life form and basis her effort on holism and the idea that caring can only be exposed from an emic or people-based standpoint.

The genesis from which the four theories are resultant and the following method in which caring in nursing is distinct has suggestions for the learning of caring. It may be obliging to inspect this from the viewpoint of Parses (1987) entirety and simultaneity paradigms. The whole paradigm spotlights on the normal science outlook and varies from the simultaneity paradigm in three noteworthy ways ” in the postulations about the self and fitness, in relative to the aim of nursing, and in the suggestions for research and application.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

The simultaneity pattern views the individual as further than and diverse from the addition of the parts, as a release being free to prefer, who gives importance to situations. Healthiness is measured within the simultaneity model as a development of flattering and as a position of value precedences and the purpose of nursing focuses on the eminence of living from the persons point of view.

Therefore, performance nursing from a thoughtful or human science perception is dependable with the simultaneity exemplar. The ambition/outcome in three of the four theories (Roach does not visibly utter an ending) places prominence on civilizing and enhancing care from the angle of the tolerant. This has allegations for the learning of caring which, to be factual to the simultaneity pattern, would supports qualitative advancements.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay


Interior arrangement, according to McKenna (1997), comprises concerns relating to clearness and straightforwardness. It is planned to inspect how each of the four theories reproduce effortlessness. This was selected because, as McKenna (1997 p. 227) states, if we wish for theory, performance and investigations to link properly, theory should be effortlessly implicit if it is to expand the awareness and assurance of hard pushed clinicians.

The complication of Leiningers theory is manifest when evaluating the abundant concepts considered fundamental to her exertion. Alexander et al. (1993) observed that the supposition is not undemanding and calls for knowledge and positive reception of transcultural and anthropological imminents. George (1995) also sustained that it is neither effortless nor simply unspoken, particularly upon first understanding. Nevertheless, she hassles that formerly the interrelationships among concepts are grabbed, simplicity is more obvious.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

Underneath this, Leininger herself summits that once her scholar and postgraduate nursing learners have conceptualized the assumption, they locate it highly realistic, related, and more trouble-free than intricate (Alexander et al. 1989 p. 436). Shortly, Leininger maintained this proclamation in her 1995 wording where she explains that nurses are considering many benefits of using the hypothesis to build up and give culture-specific care and care that is significant to consumers who are ethnically unlike (Leininger 1995 p. 110).

In that it illustrates on a numeral of other disciplines, Watsons conjecture is comparable to that of Leiningers. For the reason that, Barnhart et al. (1994) disagree that the person who reads must have an accepting of a multiplicity of subject matter in order to realize the theory. In disparity, Talento (1995) regards Watsons theory to be uncomplicated because it uses theories from added orders, which she feels are known to nurses.

Nevertheless, nurses fluency with all the concepts contained by Watsons theory, principally the existential-phenomenological factor, would be open to query. This tip is tinted by both Barnhart et al. (1994) and Talento (1995) who have the same opinion that nurses may not encompass the open-minded arts background to give the groundwork for accepting some of Watsons principles. Additionally, Sourial (1996) in her examination of Watsons hypothesis highlights criticisms aimed at at the speech Watson uses in her theorizing.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay


The enlargement of detailed theories center on caring in nursing is analytical of the ever-increasing acknowledgment being given to caring as an inner impression within the restraint. The examination of four caring theories inside this paper highlights a numeral of similarities and dissimilarity. An exam of the source of these theories show that they are beached in humanism and the idea that caring in nursing is footed on a person science standpoints. in addition, the images of nursing and caring inside the theories imitate a dual constituent to nursing ” viewpoint/values and actions.Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay

The humanistic character of nursing as replicated inside these theories has a pressure on the schemes used to discover their consequence to nursing, helping chiefly qualitative advances. Besides, theyre supposed simplicity and utilization in nursing would come out to depend on nurses having or acquiring familiarity in other controls such as anthropology and way of life. For that reason, the education of the crucial concepts within these theories is significant if they are to be used in real world. One can terminate that the sympathetic of the ideas obtainable in these hypothesis and their victorious submission in practice is vital if caring is measured a fundamental part of the nurses responsibility. Jean Watson And Leininger Cultural Care Theory of Human Caring Essay


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