Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases that were previously not known or occurring for at least the prior 20 years are referred to as _______________ diseases.

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Multiple Choice

·

ecological

·

communicable

·

infectious

·

emergent

·

native

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The World Health Organization regards health as a matter of ________ well being.

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Multiple Choice

· physical

· mental and physical

· social and mental

· physical and social

· physical, mental, and social

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The greatest threats to human health come from

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Multiple Choice

· carcinogenic or toxic chemicals.

· psychological stress factors due to crowding.

· pathogenic organisms.

· cancer-causing chemicals.

· injuries (intentional and unintentional).

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The cutting of rainforests causes a lack of normal water flow into the soil. Puddles of water can stand for long periods. Which of the following statements best explains how rainforest destruction is closely tied with human morbidity and mortality?

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Multiple Choice

· The elimination of top consumers can favor disease-carrying organisms.

· Mosquitoes with an aquatic larval form spread many highly contagious diseases.

· The standing water is used for drinking and disease organisms in the water cause diarrhea.

· All of these explain the connection between rainforest destruction and human morbidity and mortality.

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Recent disease epidemics have been documented for all of the species list here EXCEPT for

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Multiple Choice

·

frogs and toads (chytridiomycosis)

·

honeybees (colony collapse disorder)

·

lemurs (cholera-related disease)

·

little brown bats (white-nose syndrome)

·

oysters (derma)

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Select ALL of the characteristics that correctly describe the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). There are six characteristics. Partial credit will be given.

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Check All That Apply

· accounts for lost potential even if life isn’t lostaccounts for lost potential even if life isn’t lost

·

does not include unintentional injuries

does not include unintentional injuries

· includes the overall years lost to disability or illnessincludes the overall years lost to disability or illness

·

includes years lost to early death

includes years lost to early death

· is a measure of disease burden in a populationis a measure of disease burden in a population

· is only used for diseases found in poor countries

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Hazardous substances ______________ while toxins are ______________.

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Multiple Choice

· react with specific cell components to kill cells; poisonous substances

· are dangerous substances; poisonous substances

· are usually of concern at all concentrations; dangerous substances

· are dangerous only at high concentrations; dangerous only at low concentrations

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Toxic substances are dangerous because they

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Multiple Choice

· react or interfere with specific cell functions.

· can physically remove or tear tissues.

· are usually synthetic.

· cause debilitating, parasitic diseases.

· cause excessive water accumulation in tissues.

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An allergen

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Multiple Choice

· causes DNA damage.

· is a natural pathogen.

· over-stimulates the immune system.

· attacks the nervous system.

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A chemical that specifically causes abnormalities in a growing fetus is called a(n)

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Multiple Choice

· teratogen.

· mutagen.

· carcinogen.

· endocrine disruptor.

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Estrogen-like compounds that can disrupt normal cellular function are called a/an

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Multiple Choice

· endocrine disruptor.

· mutagen.

· carcinogen.

· teratogen.

· antigen.

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Which of the following statements is true?

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Multiple Choice

· If a substance is toxic, its toxicity is highly dependent on its form and where it is present in the environment.

· If a substance is toxic, it is equally toxic regardless of its form or where it is present in the environment.

· The most important factor in the toxicity of a substance is the route by which it enters our bodies.

· None of these statements are true.

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The accumulation of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in various tissues of a living organism is defined as

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Multiple Choice

·

bioaccumulation.

·

body burden.

·

mutagen.

·

biomagnification.

·

carrying capacity.

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Which of the following would NOT be among the most important characteristics of chemicals in determining their environmental risks?

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Multiple Choice

· solubility

· mobility

· persistence

· ability to interact with other substances

· density

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The biomagnification of DDT demonstrates that

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Multiple Choice

· higher trophic level organisms can concentrate toxins.

· birds should not depend on fish for food.

· DDT is easily metabolized and excreted by most organisms.

· DDT is an extremely water-soluble material.

· water-soluble toxins are widespread.

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Highly persistent toxic chemicals

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Multiple Choice

· retain their toxicity as they cycle through the food chain and environment.

· lose their toxicity once released in the environment.

· accumulate within one organism but break down at higher trophic levels.

· are highly unusual among artificial chemicals.

· are usually not that toxic in their life span.

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How are bioaccumulation and biomagnification different?

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Multiple Choice

· Bioaccumulation occurs in an individual, while biomagnification occurs through the food chain.

· Biomagnification occurs in an individual, while bioaccumulation occurs through the food chain.

· Bioaccumulation occurs in humans, while biomagnification occurs in animals in nature.

· Biomagnification involves storing substances in adipose tissue, while bioaccumulation refers to water soluble substances.

· Bioaccumulation is a regular cellular process, while biomagnification refers to toxic substances.

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Which method of toxin exposure is most dangerous and why?

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Multiple Choice

· Airborne because toxin concentration can be so high in the air.

· Airborne because the lungs are very efficient at absorption.

· Ingestion because the stomach lining is very efficient at absorption.

· Ingestion because we eat and drink so much every day.

· Skin contact because the skin is the largest organ of the body.

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An LD50 (lethal dose 50%) is a dose of a toxic chemical that

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Multiple Choice

· is an acceptable level of risk for most individuals.

· all individuals react to.

· kills individuals 50 years old and over.

· is 50 times less than the minimal dose.

· kills half of the population.

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Detection of toxic chemicals depends upon

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Multiple Choice

· how many chemicals are present.

· how many individuals respond to them at a certain dosage.

· the sensitivity of measuring techniques and how many chemicals are present.

· whether or not individuals or groups of individuals are sensitive to them.

· whether or not groups of individuals are sensitive to them.

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Most people do their own personal risk assessments based upon

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Multiple Choice

· scientific data.

· emotional preference devoid of logic.

· logical reasoning about relative risks.

· personal biases and preferences as well as logic.

· statistical probabilities.

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As a society, we usually focus money and attention on health risks that are

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Multiple Choice

· most serious.

· easiest to clean up.

· most well publicized and frightening.

· easiest to research.

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With respect to exposure to toxins which statement is correct?

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Multiple Choice

· Acute effects are much worse than chronic effects.

· Acute effects are not as bad as chronic effects.

· Acute effects are the immediate results of a single exposure, chronic effects are those that are long-lasting.

· Acute effects are permanent, chronic effects may be short or long term but go away over time.

The EPA usually assumes an acceptable risk for environmental hazards is about 1 in

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Multiple Choice

· 100.

· 1000.

· 10,000.

· 100,000.

· 1 million.

The term, ______________, refers to chemical changes that regulate gene function and can control gene expression for several generations.

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Multiple Choice

· chronic effect

· carcinogen

· epigenome

· genome

· mutagen

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Explain the difference between morbidity and mortality. (1 point)

The textbook describes six different types of toxins. Answer the following for two types: A) name a specific example and B) state where in the environmental you would find this example. (2 points)

Why are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such a big threat to health? Your answer should be more detailed than “because they are persistent.” (1 point),To continue with the answer check on mycoursewriter.com/

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