Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay

Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay

Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay

Topic Breastfeeding
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Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits related to Breastfeeding
Compile 4 risk factors
4 benefits

Each section will have to slides total of 4 slides.
1. Risk factor 2 slides each slid has 2 risk factors with rationale include intext citation and speaker notes include citation
2. Benefits 2 slides each slid has 2 benefits with rationale include intext citation and speaker notes citation Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay
Total of 5 slides
1. Risk factor 2
2. Risk factor 2
3. Benefit 2
4. Benefit 2
5. Reference page


In the absence of significant, unpreventable risks, breastfeeding should be the norm for the nourishment of human infants and should, therefore, be encouraged for populations in all countries. Continued efforts of international and national agencies and healthcare professionals to aid and abet breastfeeding, reduce the risks that occur in some women during breastfeeding, provide the safest substitutes for human milk when that is necessary, and encourage further research into the posed questions should considerably improve the health of many children.Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay

Nurse your baby often in the first few days so he’ll get plenty of colostrum. It will also help your breastmilk supply to come in.
When your baby is 2 to 5 days old, your milk will become thinner and bluish-white in color, like skim milk. Your breasts will also feel fuller. Congratulations, your milk has come in! When this happens, it is very important to nurse your baby frequently to keep your breasts from becoming too full or engorged.

Your milk changes as your baby feeds. When your baby first begins a nursing session, he gets foremilk. Foremilk is lower in fat and higher in lactose, a milk sugar that is important for development. The foremilk quenches your baby’s thirst. As the feeding progresses, your milk transitions to hindmilk. Hindmilk is higher in fat, so it helps your baby feel full longer. During a feeding, it’s important not to switch breasts until your baby has had a chance to get the hindmilk from the first breast. Some people think of hindmilk as the baby’s dessert.Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay

Secretory IGA, a type of immunoglobulin that protects the ears, nose, throat, and the GI tract, is found in high amounts in breast milk throughout the first year. Secretory IGA does its work before it is digested in the stomach. Secretory IGA attaches to the lining of the nose, mouth, and throat and fights the attachment of specific infecting agents. Breast milk levels of IGA against specific viruses and bacteria increase in response to a maternal exposure to these organisms.Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay

Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein that is found in breast milk, but is not available in formulas. It limits the availability of iron to bacteria in the intestines, and alters which healthy bacteria will thrive in the gut. Again, it is found in the highest concentrations in colostrum, but persists throughout the entire first year. It has a direct antibiotic effect on bacteria such as staphylococci and E. coli.Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay

Breast milk contains lysozyme (a potent digestive ingredient) at a level thirty times higher than in any formula. Interestingly, while other contents of breast milk vary widely between well nourished and poorly nourished mothers, the amount of lysozyme is conserved, suggesting that it is very important. It has a strong influence on the type of bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tract.

Breast milk specifically encourages the growth of Lactobacillaceae, which are helpful bacteria that can inhibit many of the disease-causing gram-negative bacteria and parasites. In fact, there is a striking difference between the bacteria found in the guts of breast- and formula-fed infants. Breast-fed infants have a level of lactobacillus that is typically 10 times greater than that of formula-fed infants. Both the presence of the lactobacilli and the action of the lactoferrins and lysosomes help protect the infant by limiting the growth of unhealthy bacteria in the gut.Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay

Strategies to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) are a key component of the child survival and
development programs of many nations, supported by UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO), include
infant and young child feeding (IYCF) as priorities. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women (1979) is relevant to food rights and breastfeeding, in that obstacles to breastfeeding for women
who wish to breastfeed infringe on their rights.
This Convention is in line with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), International Covenant on
Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1976) and Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990). The World Alliance
for Nutrition and Human Rights acknowledged the importance of breastfeeding at its first meeting in 1993:
“Believing that obstacles to breastfeeding often serve as a human being’s first hindrance to adequate nutrition,
food, and care, the alliance pledges itself to further the principles of Innocenti Declaration on the Protection,
Promotion, and Support of Breastfeeding”Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay
. Moreover, all infants should where possible enjoy the right to be
exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life, and thereafter to be breastfed for up to two years or beyond,
together with age-appropriate, nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods.
Beyond the child’s right to survive and develop, the scientific rationale for this decision is clear. The Lancet Series
on Child Survival 20032
underscored that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and continued breastfeeding with
complementary feeding are major factors in child survival, growth and development. Evidence also demonstrates
that lack of breastfeeding is associated with various chronic diseases and obesity later in life, poor school
performance, reduced productivity and impaired intellectual and social development Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay
The benefits of optimum breastfeeding practices, which include exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months,
are abundant. However, the challenges to making exclusive breastfeeding the norm are also numerous.
“We should not be lauding the advantage of breastfeeding any more than we praise the practice of breathing air.
Rather we should be articulating clearly the harm and disadvantages of any alternative.”
—Michael C. Latham, Cornell University Program of International Nutrition Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay

‘Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion, and Support of Breastfeeding’. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1990.
Lancet Child Survival Series, 2003.
3 World Health Organization, ‘Global strategy: Breastfeeding critical for child survival,’ 2003. Available at:
Benefits of exclusive breastfeeding
A case can be made for moving away from statements about the advantages of breastfeeding for babies and
mothers toward messages about the negative outcomes for babies and mothers of not breastfeeding.
Nevertheless, it is important for planners of an IYCF programme to know what the benefits of optimum
breastfeeding practices are, not just for infants and mothers but for the larger community and society as well.
EBF is known to be most effective preventive intervention to reduce early-childhood mortality. Optimum
breastfeeding practices—exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding to 12
months—tops the list of preventive interventions that would most reduce the number of deaths of children less
than five years old from all causes (Figure 1)i
. Optimum breastfeeding practices have the potential to prevent 1.4
million deaths every year among children under five years
. In fact, Figure 1 shows that this one preventive
intervention could have almost twice the impact of the next most effective preventive action in reducing mortality
for this age group. Note that coverage of exclusive breastfeeding was set at 90 per cent.
Figure 1. Child deaths (%) that could be prevented with 99 per cent coverage of preventive
Source: Lancet Child Survival Series, 2003.Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay
Breastfeeding has profound benefits for infants that extend beyond childhood, numerous benefits for mothers and
benefits for the family. Beyond these well-documented positive aspects for long-term health and well being,
breastfeeding has a beneficial impact on the workplace, the health care system and the larger society, as described
below by category.
Survival benefits for infants. There is growing evidence that early initiation of breastfeeding has a significant
impact on reducing overall neonatal mortality. Recent studies from Ghana and Nepal show that early initiation—
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14%
Antenatal steroids
Water, sanitation, hygiene
Clean delivery
Hib vaccine
Complementary feeding (with
continued BF)
Insecticide treated materials
Excl. breastfeeding for 6m &
continued BF to 12m
within the first hour of life—could prevent around 20 per cent of neonatal deaths. Breastfed children have at least
a six times greater chance of survival in the early months than non-breastfed children. In the first six months of
life, breastfed infants are six times less likely to die from diarrhoea and 2.5 times less likely to die from acute
respiratory infection. Breastfeeding protects infants against diarrhoea through two mechanisms: (1) reduced risk
of bacteria from contaminated formula, other liquids and complementary foods and (2) the transfer of maternal
antibodies through breastmilk.Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay
In emergencies, breastfeeding saves lives among the most vulnerable infants under six months by avoiding illnesscausing pathogens in artificial milk, boosting their immune systems and providing all required nutrients and
sufficient fluid to prevent dehydration.

Benefits for infants’ nutritional status. Breastfeeding protects against weight loss due to diarrhoea. Exclusive
breastfeeding often means that babies will breastfeed more, which helps keep up the milk production so they get
more nutrition. (The practice of giving water together with breast milk in the first six months means the water
displaces breast milk, so babies nurse less and the mother produces less milk.)Because of its large impact on
reduction of infectious diseases, breastfeeding plays a role in reduction of stunting, a condition in which infectious
diseases are important determinants. However, breastfed children will become stunted if they do not receive an
adequate quantity and quality of complementary foods from the age of six months onward.
Benefits for reducing risk of chronic conditions. Breastfeeding lowers infants’ risk of chronic conditions later in life
compared with formula-fed infants, including asthma, overweight and obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cardiac
risk factors such as hypertension and high cholesterol levels, and cancers such as childhood leukemia and breast
cancer later in life.
Benefits for infants’ intellectual, motor and emotional development. Many studies confirm that children who are
breastfed do better on tests of cognitive and motor development, as well as academic outcomes, than children
who are not breastfed, and infants who are fed breastmilk tend to have higher IQ scores. A recent study adds to
the body of literature concluding that children who are breastfed for more than six months have a lower risk of
mental health problems as they enter their teenage years4
. Other aspects of exclusive breastfeeding are harder to
quantify but profoundly beneficial. These include the additional opportunities for bonding of mother and infant
through more time together with skin-to-skin contact and the contribution this prolonged time of secure physical
closeness makes to the infant’s well being.Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay
Benefits for maternal health. Initiation of breastfeeding immediately after delivery helps to contract the uterus,
expel the placenta and reduce bleeding. Breastfeeding may lead to a more rapid return to pre-pregnancy weight.
Exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months may delay the return of fertility, thus reducing exposure to the
maternal health risks associated with short birth intervals. In the longer term, mothers who breastfeed tend to be
at lower risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer and ovarian cancer.
Economic and social benefits. Breastfeeding is the least expensive method of infant feeding. For many poor
households, the high cost of breast-milk substitutes, feeding and sterilizing equipment and fuel represents a
substantial drain on scarce household resources. Added to this are the costs of health care for the sick infant
exposed to contaminants from mixed feeding or water in addition to breast milk. When mothers miss work to care
for sick infants, employers and the economy are also affected. Moreover, as previously stated, breastfeeding is a
basic human right, so effective EBF practices should become available to all, including vulnerable and marginalized
populations. Breastfeeding can help bridge economic and social gaps.Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay
Table 1 provides an overview of the benefits of breastfeeding discussed so far in this section. Overall, the
combination of physical and emotional benefits provided by exclusive breastfeeding gives children the best
platform for a healthy start in life. Identification of Risk Factors and/or Benefits Related to Breastfeeding Essay


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