EXCELSIOR – NUR513 Which of the following are correct when citing a personal communication

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EXCELSIOR – NUR513 Which of the following are correct when citing a personal communication

EXCELSIOR – NUR513 Which of the following are correct when citing a personal communication

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Module 4 Quiz

Question 10Which of the following are correct when citing a personal communication? Select all that apply.

Use the format in the reference page for newspaper articles.

Use this format in text: (R. Diaz, personal communication, August 15, 2017).

Only reference in text, as personal communication is not recoverable data.

Use this format in text: Ronald Diaz, 2017.

List it in the reference page as a primary source.

EXCELSIOR – NUR513 Which of the following are correct when citing a personal communication

EXCELSIOR – NUR513 Which of the following are correct when citing a personal communication

Not all of your sources will come from books, journals, newspapers, etc.  Some of them will consist of personal communications, or personal conversations, emails, class lectures, performance art, or research interviews.  Cite personal communications only in the text,  give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide the exact date if possible (see APA, section 6.20, p. 179; , “What Belongs in the Reference List?”).

Personal Conversation

In text format:

According to S. Brown (personal communication, July 22, 2012), the statistics class is full.

The statistics class is full (S. Brown, personal communication, July 22, 2012).

If the personal communication is recoverable, then the source should be cited as an archived material.

Individual Email

Since emails are not recoverable, APA treats them like personal communications (see , “How Do You Cite E-Mail Communications from Individuals?”).

These are not included in the reference list. In text format:EXCELSIOR – NUR513 Which of the following are correct when citing a personal communication

An example given by M. Lankershim (personal communication, May 11, 2008)

There were 100 participants in the study (M. Lankershim, personal communication, May 11, 2008)

Facebook Page (private, friends-only) (see APA, section 6.10, p. 173)

If a class lecture is unretrievable, it is considered unrecoverable data.  Only reference the source within the text, and not on the reference list.

In text format:

According to Professor L. Tucker (personal communication, May 17, 2009)

The post-war depression of the early 1900s was a hardship for all citizens, rich and poor (Professor L. Tucker, personal communication, May 17, 2009)


Personal Interviews (see , “How Do You Cite an Interview”; , “APA Style for Citing Interviews”)

Because personal interviews are not considered recoverable data, these references should not be posted in the reference list

A. Adler’s (personal communication, March 06, 2005) rendition of The Nutcracker is a postmodern attempt at a classical piece of ballet

The postmodern rendition of The Nutcracker (A.Adler, personal communication, March 06, 2005) was a success amongst the critics.

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