Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Begin reviewing and replying to peer postings/responses early in the week to enhance peer discussion. See the rubric for participation points. Participate in the discussion by asking a question, providing a statement of clarification, providing viewpoints with a rationale, challenging aspects of the discussion, or indicating relationships between two or more lines of reasoning in the discussion. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress.Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

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Post your initial response to one of the two topics below. Include a PHOTO to illustrate your posting this week!

Topic 1

Review the Healthy People 2020 objectives for the older adult.

Of the objectives listed for the older adult, which two do you feel are most important?
Include examples and references to support your response.

Peer 1

In life as we grow older, we age and things start to change in the human body. The Life expectancy has greatly increased. In Healthy People 2020 focuses on how to maintain the aging population to the best possible health. Many older adults as aging occurs acquire a chronic illness. “Chronic conditions can lower quality of life for older adults and contributes to the leading death among this population” (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2020). I feel that one of healthy choice 2020 objectives can strongly prevent this from happening. This was to “Increase the proportion of older adults with reduced physical or cognitive function who engage in light, moderate, or vigorous leisure-time physical activities” (ODPHD, 2020). Many older adults are members of gym. Resistance exercise and strength training, along with weight lifting has many positive effects on the body. It helps the body increase muscle mass, control glycemic, and improves bone density. This added activity in an elderly person can achieve optimum health.Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Also working on the med/surg unit as a nurse there was some older patients admitted to the unit from the emergency department with falls. Another healthy choice objective was less ER visits due to falls. Many times falls are cause from loss of balance and muscle weakness. As the older population increase their needs to remain a balance with physical activities to maintain the strength of the body. “More beneficial effects are an improvement of posture and physical stability, improved flexibility, and mobility capacity, a better cognitive function and lower level of depression” (Ageing, 2013).


Ageing is Not a Disease. (2013). Backcare Journal, 20-22. Retrieved from https://



Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020). Older Adults:

Overview. In Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeo


Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020). Older adults:

Objectives. In Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from https://www.healthpeo


Peer 2

Falls and chronic illnesses are among the many problems that affect the older population. When patients fall, they often have one or two chronic illnesses. Having one of two chronic illnesses implies being on medications to slow the progression of the disease(“Older Adults | Healthy People 2020”, 2020).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

When medications are prescribed, there are certain side effects that occur from taking them daily. For instance, cardiac medications that treat heart disease often cause low blood pressure as one of the side effects. If a patient has low blood pressure, there is a high chance of falling.

Yet, if one is able to eat a balanced diet: 5 – 6 vegetables daily, adhere to a low salt diet, then she or he lowers their chance of getting hypertension which is a chronic disease. By preventing the development of hypertension, we prevent being on hypertension medications, prevent side effects associated with hypertension medications and as a result prevent falls associated with taking such medications (“Older Adults | Healthy People 2020”, 2020)

Falling and having chronic illness reduces one’s quality of life, increase health costs, and prohibits healthy aging. Therefore it is important that we address this correlation of falls and chronic diseases. By addressing this correlation, we can promote healthier aging as defined in the healthy people 2020 goals (“Older Adults | Healthy People 2020”, 2020).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Health promotion programs should be created to initially attack the above risk factors at the primary prevention level. The risk factors that are most associated with primary prevention include obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. These are the most reversible risk factors and the majority of funding should be directed at this level. In addition, health promotion strategies should involve improving physical activity levels in conjunction with diet modification (ex: low fat, low cholesterol, and low sodium). Furthermore, smoking cessation is an extremely important component of primary prevention and decreasing the consumption of alcohol would be beneficial. At the secondary level of prevention, screening for early detection of DM2, HTN, renal insufficiency, and dyslipidemia with routine outpatient clinic visits and serum lab tests are essential. If any of the screening tests are positive, then primary preventive measures should be the 1st line of defense against further disease progression. However, if the disease progresses further, than tertiary preventive measures should be instituted to control the complications of CVD. Tertiary care may consist of medications [aspirin, plavix, statins (Fievet & Staels, 2009), ACE-inhibitors, beta-blockers, metformin, sulfonylureas, insulin (Park & Wexler, 2009)], or procedural interventions (Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty, Coronary Artery Bypass Graft).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

CVD is an important condition for health promoters to intervene because it consists of multiple diseases. Health promotion and health education programs directed at decreasing the incidence of CVD is a very efficient and all-encompassing effort in controlling DM2, HTN, CVA, and dyslipidemia. In addition, health prevention programs must collaborate with multiple specialists (such as cardiologists, neurologists, vascular surgeons, and thoracic surgeons). CVD is the leading cause of death in developing countries. The statistics are alarming, with an incidence of 1.25 million heart attacks per year in last decade and a prevalence of 17 million individuals with a personal history of a heart attack. The mortality rates are extensive as well, with approximately 800,000 deaths per year which is equivalent to 35.3% of all deaths in the United States (relative mortality of other conditions compared to CVD: cancer 2/3 as many deaths, accidents 1/7, and HIV 1/40). Interventions begin early because cholesterol plaque deposits in blood vessels occur among most people over the age of 20. Even control of one CVD risk factor (like DM2, or smoking) has major implications on decreasing the incidence of CVD overall. Currently, there are multiple health promotion and health education programs directed at multiple diseases under the rubric of CVD with risk factors that overlap substantially.Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay This method is very disorganized, ineffective, inefficient, and costly. If these programs were consolidated in a way to target the overlapping risk factors rather than the multiple CVD outcomes, then they would be more effective at preventing many diseases at lower cost. Health promotion and health education programs have the potential of being very successful in decreasing the incidence of CVD because the risk factors and complications are treatable and highly reversible (Gerr, 2009).

Select the 6 questions you will answer (from the 9 provided) and list them on this page:
Questions: #1, #2, #3, #4, #5, #8
End of cover pages>>Begin answer to your selected questions on next page

Beginning of exam (page limit 10 pages of text not including cover pages, references, figures). Font & Paragraph: Times New Roman, 12 points, double spaced. Good luck!
Program: (Comprehensive CVD Health promotion Program Example), (Sitaker, Jernigan, Ladd, & Patanian, 2008), (CDC, 2009)

Model: Logic Model, (Goldman & Schmalz, 2006) , (McLaughlin & Jordan, 1999)
Outcomes — Impact



State program funding

Expertise of professional staff and infrastructure

Time commitment

Internal epidemiology partners and stakeholders


Internal epidemiology support for surveillance and evaluation

Programmatic guidance training Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Technical Assistance

Research foundation


Clinic Partners


Educate Clinic Teams about Clinical Guidelines

Provide training to clinic teams in all 3 levels of prevention


Work with Media

DM/cholesterol campaign

CAD/CVA Stroke campaign

(Systems change)

Worksite HP health programs

State/National/Local Partnerships

AHA Regulations

CAD Facilitation Project


CVA prevention meetings

Primary prevention service delivery

Adult/Pediatric populations at state and national levels

Minority groups/associations

Business associations


Federal/State/ and Local governments

City Councils

Insurance Companies Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Media and marketing representatives

Health professional organizations (AMA)

Collaboration: American Heart Association, American Diabetes Association

Increase in appropriate treatment of HTN, DM2, dyslipidemia

Skills of clinic teams developed to implement primary preventive strategies

Partnerships and collaborations are established and effective

Increased public awareness/knowledge of the signs and symptom of heart disease and stroke,

Increased public knowledge to call 9-1-1

Improved aspiration/motivation of target populations to decrease incidence of CVD

Improved learning of Basic Life Support protocols among the general public


Increase in number of patients with blood pressure, accuchecks, and serum lipids under control

(Decision Making)

Enhanced public health system structure


Improved quality of care


Improved emergency response to acute events

Better management of chronic conditions

Individual behavior change

Improved patient management of CVD co-morbidities

(Conditions)Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Decrease in CVD incidence

Decreased CDV morbidity/mortality


Reduce health disparities between privileged and underprivileged populations


Improved access to insurance


Improved legal representation of employees in worker’s compensation cases


Healthier food choices in public restaurants and fast food enterprises

Program: (Comprehensive CVD HP Program) (cont.), (Sitaker, Jernigan, Ladd, & Patanian, 2008), (CDC, 2009)
Situation: Logic Model, (Goldman & Schmalz), (McLaughlin & Jordan, 1999)
Outcomes – Impact


Conduct CVD workshops

Develop CVD resources


Produce surveillance analyses

Inventory of CVD epidemiologic data

Patient Counseling on CVD risk factors

Community Leaders

Neighborhood Associations

Nurses, Physicians

(Occupational Health)

Physical Activity Professionals

Department of Transportation (vouchers for patients in poverty)Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay



Improved attitudes and opinions of CVD prevention through patient counseling

(Social Action)

Improved management of CVD risk factors


Improved lifestyle behavior modification among patients

Question #2
Dr. Campo provided five key lessons in her lecture to develop a successful health communication program to prevent CVD. The three lessons that will be discussed include human behavior is complex, do your homework/test/know your audience, and collaborate (Campo, 2008). While implementing these lessons, it is important to be reliable, accurate, and timely in order to have effective health communication (Sutter, 2009).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Human behavior is complex and unpredictable and requires complex messages and communication strategies. In order to improve message sustainability, health communicators should utilize persuasive literature, improved message complexity, and edutainment. Sesame Street uses edutainment by providing entertaining health information at an early age (ex: the Cookie Monster eating apples) (Campo, 2008). These messages target childhood obesity, which is the greatest current barrier to improving CVD (Gerr, 2009). In addition, message complexity can be improved by increasing the number of channels utilized while considering the surroundings. Furthermore, interpersonal channels involve healthcare providers speaking to patients face to face about anti-CVD interventions. Moreover, guerilla marketing techniques utilize dramatic stunts to relay health messages (e.g., blow up a wall with TNT to display the effects of hypertension on blood vessels). Another cost-effective method is communicating CVD risk factor information through the internet (Campo, 2008).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Another lesson in Dr. Campo’s lecture involves doing your homework, and test/know your audience. It is best to know the target audience well in order to understand what is driving their behavior. Subsequently, the health communicator must adapt the message according to the target population (Campo, 2008). For example, health communication strategies can be applied to blood pressure and cholesterol screening. Before initiating a national campaign, audience testing must be directed towards the target community to see how people feel about it. In addition, different populations with CVD (such as white vs. black) must be separately tested because they have different decision-making processes secondary to substantial disparities in healthcare access (Mensah, Mokdad, Ford, Greenlund, & Croft, 2005).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

The third lesson to be analyzed from Dr. Campo’s lecture involves collaboration and forming CVD partnerships with researchers, practitioners, and community members to implement the other four lessons. Working with patients with CVD in an interdisciplinary way provides the best health communication ideas, and maximizes involvement with target audiences (Campo, 2008). Collaboration is critical for any communication activity or endeavor, and is especially important when working with disenfranchised groups experiencing significant health disparities (Mensah, Mokdad, Ford, Greenlund, & Croft, 2005).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

The CDC and AHA have collaborated with the National Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Program to formulate a health campaign to decrease the incidence of CVD in the United States. The socio-cognitive theory is quite suitable for implementation of this health campaign. This theory primarily works at the interpersonal level and its foundation relies on social learning (Chrisman, 2009). Therefore, behavior changes between people are fostered by conducting surveillance of CVD related risk factors by health care providers and subsequently providing primary prevention counseling to high risk patients. In addition, population-based strategies focus on an identified population or area and include policy, environmental, and systems changes to alter social perceptions on CVD prevention (CDC, 2005).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Components of the socio-cognitive theory involve population approaches, considering the social context, dynamic processes, health behavior changes, and outcome expectancies (Rimer & Glanz, 2005). Current approaches need to utilize preventive strategies by analyzing the extent of CVD in the population (CDC, 2009). In addition, this campaign considers the social context by identifying culturally appropriate approaches to promote heart disease and stroke prevention among racial, ethnic, and other priority populations (CDC, 2005). Furthermore, dynamic processes analyze personal factors with environmental factors and human behaviors. This campaign implements this process by developing a plan for CVD prevention with an emphasis on policy development and environmental change. Health behavior changes are primarily dependent on self-efficacy and health campaign goals. Public health officials need to empower high risk populations (those with dysmetabolic syndrome) through education of lifestyle factors and smoking cessation. Moreover, outcome expectancies can be done by modulating educational campaigns about risk factor modification to control for dysmetabolic syndrome and reducing the overall risk of developing CVD (CDC, 2009).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

The socio-cognitive theory also utilizes various constructs such as reciprocal determinism, behavioral capability, expectations, observational learning and reinforcements (Rimer & Glanz, 2005). Reciprocal determinism is the theory that a person’s behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment. This is reflected by implementing and evaluating policy, environmental, and educational CVD interventions in health care sites, work sites, and communities. Behavioral capability utilizes population-based public health strategies to increase public awareness of the signs and symptoms of heart disease and stroke, and the need to call 9-1-1. In addition, the expectations construct promotes health care systems to support increased adherence to guidelines for CVD prevention, by improving policy and environmental buffering of unhealthy lifestyles. Furthermore, observational learning is exemplified by encouraging training health care providers on health care systems. Finally, alliance need to be formed at all levels of the socio-economic model to enhance secondary prevention programs (such as early detection of CVD) and increase compliance with federal regulations (CDC, 2009).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Question #4
CVD health education can be performed at all levels of the socio-ecologic model (individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, society/public policy, and supra-nation) (Beswick, 2009). Unfortunately, lack of training and education at the individual level (about CVD risk factors) is a major barrier that impedes the achievement of optimal health (Oprescu, 2009). When counseling patients to stop smoking, the health educator can utilize the trans-theoretical/stages of change model and stratify which level (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) their patient is and manage accordingly. Furthermore, health educators must understand different personality types and describe the effect of personality on health behaviors and disease development (Davidson, 2009). For example, type A personality has been associated with CVD and this relationship should be addressed by the healthcare provider (Archer, 2009).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

At the interpersonal level, health educators should consider social networks and social support systems. Informational support can be provided by brochures explaining preventive strategies against CVD (Beswick, 2009). Furthermore, health educators must explain health messages in a way that is culturally sensitive and appropriate (Oprescu, 2009). This can be done by counseling African American patients about their increased risk of developing diabetes compared to other racial groups, the potential complications of diabetes (e.g., heart attacks, strokes, amputations, blindness), and how to improve their lifestyle and diet (Brown & Abdelhafiz, 2009). At the organizational level, health educators should focus on bottom up messages rather than top down (Oprescu, 2009). Worksite health education programs must strive to overcome challenges provided by disability and the subsequent loss of school and workdays from CVD. Effective solutions involve strategies originating from primary prevention methods (e.g., smoking cessation, lifestyle modifications) (Monahan, 2009). Organization based programs must utilize evidence based medicine to provide conditions supportive of health behavior changes, use several methods of intervention, and dynamically adapt to specific organization needs (Malenfant, 2009) (e.g., increase in prevalence of hypertension secondary to lead exposure) (Gerr, 2009).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Community level health educational strategies involve analyzing social relationships to reach large populations utilizing media and interpersonal strategies. The challenges that need to be overcome involve poor habits among health professionals (e.g., smoking), chronic illnesses (DM, HTN), population resistance, and health barriers involving health care systems. Similar to the organizational level, community level interventions should primarily focus on primary prevention. In addition, effective media utilization involves applying pressure to policy makers thereby empowering communities (Monahan, 2009). Furthermore, health educators must evaluate what is good for the community and subsequently transfer relevant information (via diffusion of innovation) (Oprescu, 2009). At the society/public policy level there exists the potential for making huge impacts on population health behaviors. In order to accomplish this, health educators need to educate policy makers to improve current CVD health regulations. This can be done by lobbying for CVD prevention strategies. In addition, advocation efforts must focus on decision makers to alleviate social inequity in our health care system (regarding CVD) (Oprescu, 2009). At the supra-nation level, cross cultural expansion is required to transmit universal CVD prevention themes internationally. Moreover, health educators must utilize the latest technology (via the internet) to transfer the latest CVD research information from developed countries to developing nations (e.g., benefits of aspirin prophylaxis for CVD).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

The “Policy Creation Flowchart” includes 7 steps. Whenever there is a problem with any step, one must evaluate the previous steps to see where the process broke down (Pollack, 2009). Step 1 identifies, describes, and analyzes the problem (Pollack, 2009). Epidemiologically, CVD is the leading cause of death in the United States, and approximately eighty million Americans possess at least one of the subtypes of CVD (CDC, 2009). Step 2 assesses community capacity and readiness to determine if policy is an appropriate strategy and recognizes the need for a written policy. If it is not, then policy makers must improve awareness, education or environmental support strategies by referring back to step 1. However, if policy is an appropriate strategy, then it is ok to move to step 3 (Pollack, 2009). Capacity building for CVD is performed by empowering health care providers on prevention strategies and treatment options for multiple CVD co-morbidities that occur simultaneously (e.g., ACE inhibitors to prevent renal failure in patients with co-morbid hypertension and diabetes) (George, Matters, McGruder, Valderrama, & Xie, 2008).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Step 3 involves setting goals, objectives and policy options (Pollack, 2009). This can be done by utilizing population-based public health strategies to increase public awareness of the signs and symptoms of heart disease and stroke, and the need to call 9-1-1. Based on this, other policy options include increased detection and treatment of CVD risk factors and increased early detection and treatment of heart disease and stroke (Greenlund, Croft, & Mensah, 2004). Step 4 identifies decision makers and influencers. Any person who can influence lawmakers about an issue can help shape policy. These can include identifying individuals, communities, organizations, media, lobbyists, public health departments, and state legislators that can help with CVD policy implementation (Pollack, 2009). Step 5 builds support for policy among decision makers and determines if support for a particular policy is sufficient. If it is not sufficient, policy makers must develop an action plan to build support and refer back to steps 1-4. However, if support that is gathered is sufficient, then policy makers can move on to step 6 (Pollack, 2009). Regarding CVD, step 5 can be implemented by increasing public awareness, focusing on high-risk populations to eliminate disparities, and facilitating collaboration among public and private sector partners (through representational and facilitative advocacy) (Binger, 2009).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Step 6 involves writing and/or revising the policy and ascertaining if the policy been adopted. If it has not been adopted, then the policy maker should restrategize and go back to steps 1-5. However, if the policy has been adopted, then the policy maker may advance to step 7 (Pollack, 2009). For example, policy formation must involve CVD prevention strategies that focus on risk factor modification and reducing healthcare disparities (CDC, 2009). Step 7 involves implementation of the policy. CVD policy implementation should occur at all levels of the SEM by the formation of alliances to improve existing CVD prevention programs that are targeted to reduce CVD co-morbidities and increase compliance with CVD regulations (Pollack, 2009).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

There are four steps to program planning (assessment, plan, intervention, evaluation) (Nothwer, 2009). In addition, there are nine principles to CBPR. These include: 1) recognizing the community as a unit of identity, 2) builds on strengths and resources within the community, 3) facilitates collaborative, equitable involvement of all partners in all phases of the research, 4) integrates knowledge and action for mutual benefit of all partners, 5) promotes a co-learning and empowering process that attends to social inequalities, 6) involves a cyclical and iterative process, 7) addresses health from both positive and ecological perspectives, 8) disseminates findings and knowledge gained to all partners, and 9) involves a long-term commitment by all partners (Hermann, 2009). During the assessment phase (assess needs, literature reviews, existing data) of program planning (Nothwer, 2009), the fourth CBPR principle of integrating knowledge with action for the mutual benefit of all partners is appropriate for this stage. CVD prevention programs must perform research targeted to provide for effective identification of problem areas and subsequent appropriate resource allocation. In addition, alliances must be formed at all SEM levels to effectively execute CDC prevention strategies targeted at all major co-morbidities (CDC, 2009).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

The second step of program planning involves the actual plan (Nothwer, 2009). This involves the setting of goals and objectives, gathering information, analysis of logistics, and designing program activities. The second CBPR principle of building on strengths and resources of the community can be applied particularly at the point of setting goals and objectives. Economic and technologic incentives must be provided to CVD prevention programs in order to decrease healthcare disparities for effective modification of unhealthy lifestyles (CDC, 2009). The fourth and final step of program planning involves evaluating the results (Nothwer, 2009). When program evaluation is initiated from the very beginning, it reflects the sixth CBPR principle of involving a cyclical and iterative process (Hermann, 2009). In regards to CVD, these principles can be applied to surveillance and evaluation. Surveillance systems must utilize secondary prevention themes of early detection and identification of high risk patients and initiate primary prevention measures to reduce CVD incidence rates. In addition, CVD program evaluation must be cyclically implemented in order to make sure that all steps of the program planning process are running smoothly (CDC, 2009).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Potential benefits from CBPR for CVD campaign members and organizations include: heightened public profile, increased utilization of expertise or services (e.g., physician counseling for CVD risk factors), enhanced ability to address an important issue (through evidence-based CVD research), enhanced ability to affect public policy, development of valuable relationships with other groups, acquisition of useful knowledge about health issues, services, programs, or people in the community, achievement of organizational goals, enhanced ability to meet the needs of clients or constituency, ability to have greater impact by working collaboratively on goals, ability to make a contribution to the community, acquisition of additional financial support, and enhanced access to priority populations (by reducing CVD health disparities) (Butterfoss, 2006).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

The Canadian health care system places great emphasis on health promotion and disease prevention. As a matter of fact, health promotion is one of the central tenets of the Canadian Health Care system. In this paper therefore, I will provide an in-depth description of the terms health promotion and disease prevention. Further, I will identify the key determinants of health as well as justify why health promotion and disease prevention are such important functions of the Canadian health care system. Last but not least, I will identify four health promotion and/or disease prevention programs that have been implemented by the Canadian government.

Health promotion is defined as both the art and science that enables people to not only increase their control over their health but also to improve it (WHO, 1986 as cited in WHO, 1998). It aims to one, help people discover the association between optimal health and their core passions, two, boost their motivation in their endeavor for optimal health and three, help people adopt lifestyles that move them towards optimal health (O’Donnell, 2009). In essence therefore, health promotion is a comprehensive social and political process geared towards enabling people to have more control over the determinants of their health and thereby improve their health. The WHO (1984 as cited in WHO, 1998) defines disease prevention as the measures aimed at preventing the occurrence of disease as well as those that arrest the progress and reduce the consequences of an already established disease. This implies that disease prevention measures can be categorized into a number of levels depending on the stage of the disease. Primary prevention measures are geared towards preventing the first occurrence of a disease. Secondary prevention measures seek to arrest an existing disease and thus mitigate its effects via early detection and appropriate treatment. Tertiary prevention on the other hand aims at preventing the occurrence of relapses or the establishment of chronic conditions.Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay
The public health agency of Canada (1996 as cited in Public Health Agency, 2010) identified the following factors as the twelve key determinants of health; income and social status, education and literacy, social support networks, social environments, physical environment, employment/working conditions, child development, biologic and genetic make-up, gender, health services, culture, personal health practices and coping skills.
Health promotion and disease prevention are vital components of the Canadian health care system for a number of reasons. Firstly, the health promotion framework is cognizant of the fact that health is influenced by a number of factors like physical environment, culture and lifestyles. As such, it offers a means through which health policies and practices aimed at mitigating the adverse effects of these factors on the health of Canadian citizens can be developed and implemented. Further it provides an opportunity for individuals and communities to make choices as well as participate in the achievement of their own optimal health. For instance, it equips people with the ability to manage and change their surroundings. Of utmost importance however is the fact that health promotion provides an approach through which the health challenges facing the Canadian Health Care System such as the glaring inequities in the health of high versus low income groups and the escalating costs of health care can be addressed (Health Canada, 2004).
Examples of health promotion and disease prevention programs that have been implemented by the Canadian government so far include the “Heart Health Program” which is geared towards preventing cardiovascular diseases, the “Self-Help Connection program” which aimed at promoting the mental health of people living in Nova Scotia through capacity building and the “Active Living Community Action Project” which aims at encouraging physical activity amongst Canadian citizens. Others include the “Annapolis Valley Health Promoting Schools Program” which seeks to prevent chronic diseases amongst school going children by cultivating a culture as well as creating an environment that supports health (Annapolis Valley Regional School Board, n.d.). Last but not least is the “Nova Scotia Breast Screening Program” (NSBSP) which through facilitating access to quality, standardized mammography helps in the early detection and treatment of breast cancer (Nova Scotia Department of Health and Wellness, 2011).Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

In the end, health promotion measures tend to overlap with those of disease prevention. However, it differs from disease prevention in that the former is broader in its approach than disease prevention is. Lifestyle, economic and social status, culture, gender are amongst the twelve factors identified by the Public Health Agency of Canada as being the key determinants of health. Health promotion and disease prevention are very important tenets of the Canadian Health Care System mainly because they provide a means through which the challenges facing the country’s health care system can be addressed. The “Heart Health Program” and NSBSP are examples of health promotion and disease prevention programs implemented by the Canadian government.Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay

Health promotion is the process of improving health status of a person and prevention of disease by enabling the person to take control of their health. It is not just the absence of disease (Maben, & Clark, 1995). Health promotion is commonly used term in health care world, and in current society the promotion of health has greater significance, especially with the rise in consumerism. Health promotion is a vital concept for nursing, symbolizing notions that nursing is related today. Nurses are being urged to take a health promotion role, and are deemed by others as an ideal role for them. It is therefore crucial that nurses cognize the meaning of health promotion and also what is expected from them by undertaking this…show more content…
Health promotion consists of all actions that encourage maximum spiritual, mental and physical functions despite of whether an individual is ill or well. Most of these plans are aimed at bringing positive lifestyle changes (Van Leuven, & Prion, 2007). A major core competency for all NPs is health promotion. Through regular screening, immunizations and counselling, NPs can guide their patients towards the goal of health promotion and disease prevention. As a future NP, my goal is to provide patient-centered, holistic care focusing on health promotion and sickness prevention. I also believe that an understanding of practice models like Pender’s Health Promotion Model will enable me to empower patients to obtain self-efficacy and behavior specific changes. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay
An example of health promotion measures used in my practice area is smoking cessation program. All patients admitted in our hospital are screened for smoking habits upon admission and are offered help. Other examples of health promotion that I can use as an APN include blood pressure screening and managing to prevent heart disease and stroke; Cancer screening; annual physical examination and recommending lifestyle changes, diet modification Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Essay


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