Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Choose a pair of nutrients (one mineral and one vitamin) that works together in the body and then answer the following questions:

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  • What is a common deficiency disorder of these nutrients? What diet and/or lifestyle factors contribute to risk of deficiency?
  • What diet recommendations could you make to a patient with this deficiency disorder?Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

For the vitamin you chose, suppose that it is likely to reach toxic levels in the body from excessive supplementation and then answer the following questions:

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  • What are the risks of toxicity? What is the solubility of your vitamin choice?

How can the level of the vitamin that you chose be measured in the body?

Some diseases are not spread from person to person or by microorganisms or directly or indirectly, these are called non-communicable diseases.

These diseases are caused by the deficiency of some vitamins or nutrients or due to malfunctioning of certain body organs.

Nutritional deficiency diseases:

When the supply of all nutrients is done in right amount and ratio according to body need, this is called balanced diet.

The lack of any of the required nutrients in the diet is called malnutrition (means faulty or inadequate diet). It leads to deficiency of specific nutrients which is the cause of some diseases called deficiency diseases.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Protein deficiency diseases affect the children from age group 1-5 years. The deficiency of proteins, fats and carbohydrates is called as protein energy malnutrition. It leads to two kinds of diseases -Kwashiorkor [Fig. 9.1 (a)] and Marasmus [Fig. 9.1 (b)]. When a child is getting a poor diet in protein, it results a disease known as Kwashiorkor, this disease retards the growth of children.

The children suffering from this problem show some symptoms such as protruding belly, mental retardation, bulging eyes, thin legs like stick and oedema means water retention. When a child suffers from protein and carbohydrate deficiency, it leads to a disease called marasmus. There is no oedema in the children suffering from marasmus, there is no change in skin colour, ribs look very prominent and limbs become very thin, this diseases occurs in infant of up to 1 year of age.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Vitamin deficiency:

Vitamins are very essential for the body although vitamins are not needed by the body in large quantity but required for proper growth and development of body. There are two types of vitamins, viz., fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins, A, D, E and K and water soluble vitamins such as B complex group and vitamin C.

Deficiency of vitamins causes diseases which are as follows:

Diseases caused by the deficiency of Vitamin

Mineral deficiency:

The metals, non-metals and their salts are called minerals, because they are mined from the soil, ground or earth’s crust. Minerals are needed in smaller quantity for the growth and development of body, minerals do not supply any energy to the body. Our body can use minerals in the compound form and not as pure elements. Humans get most of the minerals from plant sources.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Although the so-called diseases of civilization—for example, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes—will be the focus of this article, the most significant nutrition-related disease is chronic undernutrition, which plagues more than 925 million people worldwide. Undernutrition is a condition in which there is insufficient food to meet energy needs; its main characteristics include weight loss, failure to thrive, and wasting of body fat and muscle. Low birth weight in infants, inadequate growth and development in children, diminished mental function, and increased susceptibility to disease are among the many consequences of chronic persistent hunger, which affects those living in poverty in both industrialized and developing countries. The largest number of chronically hungry people live in Asia, but the severity of hunger is greatest in sub-Saharan Africa. At the start of the 21st century, approximately 20,000 people, the majority of them children, died each day from undernutrition and related diseases that could have been prevented. The deaths of many of these children stem from the poor nutritional status of their mothers as well as the lack of opportunity imposed by poverty.

Only a small percentage of hunger deaths is caused by starvation due to catastrophic food shortages. During the 1990s, for example, worldwide famine (epidemic failure of the food supply) more often resulted from complex social and political issues and the ravages of war than from natural disasters such as droughts and floods.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Diseases that occur due to lack of nutrients over a long period are called deficiency diseases or nutritional disease. Deficiency of one or more nutrients can cause diseases or disorders in our body. For example, wheat is rich in carbohydrates, but poor in nutrients like proteins and fats. Too much intake of wheat products results in a deficiency of proteins and fats, which reduces growth. Lack of proteins also results in stunted growth, skin diseases, swelling of the face and discolouration of the hair, and even causes diarrhoea.

Deficiency of different vitamins and minerals may also result in certain diseases or disorders. So a balanced diet is required to avoid deficiency diseases. Some diseases/disorders caused by deficiency of vitamins and minerals.

Undernutrition and Malnutrition
The consumption of less quantity of food than the amount required by the body is known as ‘Undernutrition’. On other hand, lack of some essential nutrients in the diet is known as ‘Malnutrition’.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Causes of Malnutrition
Poverty
Ignorance
Shortage of Food
Faulty Food Habits
Faulty Food Distribution
How to Overcome Deficiency in Nutrients
Some of the ways you can overcome deficiency diseases are listed below.

Eat simple inexpensive foods

Eat inexpensive but wholesome food like groundnut, pulses, satto and soyabean.

Proper cooking

Many food items lose their food value by wrong method of cooking or processing. Prolonged heating of food items, keeping cut fruits or vegetables for a longer period spoil their nutritional value.

Sprouting and fermentation

Sprouting and Fermentation help in enhancing nutritive value of food.

Prevent wastage of food

Cook the right amount of food and store the food items in its respective places. For e.g., store fruits and vegetables in refrigerator, store cereals pulses and spices in airtight containers.

Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a multiple and progressive worsening of nutritional deficiencies. It includes a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations conditioned by the relative intensity of protein or energy deficiency, the gravity and duration of deficiencies, the age of the host, the cause of the deficiency, and the association with other nutritional or infectious diseases. When the deficiency is predominantly protein, clinical kwashiorkor syndrome occurs, and when the deficiency is predominantly of energy, marasmus occurs.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

History
At the beginning of the nineteenth century the descriptions of PEM paid special attention to the dermatological signs and this led to the belief that the illness was caused by tropical parasites or a vitamin deficiency. In 1920 and 1930, several authors disputed this theory. Cicely Williams studied the real nature of the disease carefully, describing kwashiorkor.9 This term was used by the Ga tribe on the Gold Coast (nowadays Ghana)10 when describing the illness in infants during weaning associated with inappropriate diet. In 1940 researchers showed that most patients had low concentrations of blood proteins, which could also be related to the quality of protein in the diet. From 1950 on, several authors described this clinical syndrome as polydeficit syndrome of childhood, indicating that mainly young children were affected and that there was a deficiency of several nutrients. Today we use the more widely accepted comprehensive term PEM: serious forms are called marasmus (non-edematous PEM), kwashiorkor (edematous PEM), and marasmic kwashiorkor. The lay term undernourishment is generally used to refer to PEM.

Etiology
The causes of undernourishment may go back as far as the prenatal phase, with particular reference to the family’s socioeconomic situation and poor distribution of food proteins, according to age, the cultural practice of inadequate diet, as well as emotional, cognitive, and physical factors.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Epidemiology
An epidemiological analysis of 53 developing countries showed that 56% of deaths of children aged 6 to 59 months were caused by undernourishment as a precipitating factor in infectious disease and that light or moderate undernourishment was involved in 83% of those deaths. About 99% of children showed a growth and development deficit and a greater propensity to infection, while only 0.1% developed the classical syndrome of malnutrition.10

There are about 800 million undernourished people in the world. Most live in developing countries, about 17% in the south and east of Asia, 33% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 8% in Latin America and the Caribbean.9,10

Consequently, 36% of children (193 million) under the age of 5 in the world are below their weight for age, 43% (230 million) are underdeveloped, and 9% (50 million) are physically weak.

In Brazil, in December 2000, Fagundes et al.11 studied 164 Indian children in the Upper Xingu, selected at random, in four villages, by anthropometry and measurement of bioelectric impedance. The results showed low rates of undernourishment and obesity (1.8% and 3.0%, respectively). These findings prove that the nutritional conditions of the children in the Indian reservation of Xingu have maintained their qualities for the last three decades. The BMI of the population studied was significantly lower than the BMI found among North-American Indians.12,13 In these studies, the children’s good nutritional state reflects the good nutritional condition of the upper Xinguana population. This is related to that population’s cultural identity, which makes it possible to sustain their nutritional habits and healthy life, at least until today, preserving the environment of the reservation area, and controlling infectious diseases in the region. These results contrast with other studies carried out with the native populations of the Americas: generally there are high incidences of nutritional damage, especially undernourishment, in Brazil and Latin America, and obesity in the USA and Canada. This is likely due to poor sanitation and poverty in the Latin–American Indian population, and the incorporation of western eating habits in North-Americans Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Pathogenesis
Undernourishment favors the appearance of opportunistic infections and is related to the disease prognosis. Nutrition is an important determinant of the immune response. Poor nutrition reduces cellular immunity, phagocyte function, and the complement system. It also causes a decrease in antibody concentration (immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM and IgG) and in cytokine production, as well as a deficiency of specific micronutrients, such as iron, zinc, selenium, copper, vitamins A, C, and B-complex, and folic acid, which play an important role in the modulation of the immune response. Although a considerable number of moderately or severely undernourished children are affected by acute diarrhea, there are other associated infections: pneumonia, tuberculosis, malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 50% to 90% of patients affected by HIV suffer during the development of their disease from some level of undernourishment.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Diagnosis
The clinical, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of PEM vary with the severity of the disease, the patient’s age, the presence of other nutritional deficits, infections, and the predominance of energy or protein deficiency.

The severity of malnutrition is mainly determined by anthropometry. The classification of the illness as acute and chronic is also accomplished through anthropometry, assessing the present nutritional state and the grade of delay in the children’s development. The dietary denominations of the protein and energy deficit in light and moderate forms of PEM are mainly evaluated by a dietary history of the individual or the dietary habits and food availability of the population.

Nutritional disorders and their management
Ruth M. Ayling, in Clinical Biochemistry: Metabolic and Clinical Aspects (Third Edition), 2014 Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

CONCLUSION
Nutritional disorders include a wide spectrum of conditions, including generalized undernutrition, overnutrition leading to obesity, the eating disorders and diseases where nutrition has a role in the aetiology. Globally, both undernutrition and obesity are important public health problems. The treatment of undernutrition is often complicated by factors such as war, famine and infectious diseases. Obesity remains difficult to treat once present, although the advances in the understanding of the physiology of feeding discussed in this chapter are leading to new pharmacological and surgical interventions.

Nutritional interventions in the treatment of diseases may involve the use of therapeutic diets, the administration of dietary supplements or the provision of nutritional support, either enteral or parenteral. Nutritional support is best delivered by a multidisciplinary team. Further research is required to establish the efficacy (or otherwise) of most dietary supplements.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

The Role of Specific Nutriments in Sarcopenia Associated With Chronic Diseases
Sami Antoun, in Nutrition and Skeletal Muscle, 2019

Sarcopenia in Chronic Diseases
Nutritional disorders are a serious and often underrecognized consequence of many chronic diseases. A combination of decreased food intake and metabolic abnormalities can lead to nutrition-related disorders which in turn are associated with delayed recovery, as well as increased morbidity and mortality. A number of guidelines and definitions describing the relationships between chronic diseases and metabolic and nutritional effects have been published over the last few years [1–5]. However, there remains a need for standard terminology, and several terms including malnutrition, cachexia, and sarcopenia are widely used without precise definitions. The classification of nutrition-related disorders proposed in the recent ESPEN guidelines is unique, since it separates the general diagnosis of malnutrition according to etiology-based types of malnutrition [6]. They describe disease-related malnutrition with or without inflammation, as well as situations with malnutrition but without disease. The classification also differentiates between acute diseases, injury-related malnutrition, and chronic disease-related malnutrition with inflammation.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

In oncology literature, several terms have appeared including precachexia and refractory cachexia [7]. Between the guidelines and the evolving literature, the definitions and concepts are becoming progressively more precise and are increasingly taking into account the mechanisms of the nutritional disorders, differentiating between acute and chronic disease and severity of symptoms. Most definitions are based on similar criteria: weight loss, decreased energy intake, and body mass index (BMI). While including inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) in the definition of malnutrition is controversial, almost all definitions now incorporate the concept of skeletal muscle (SM) wasting or sarcopenia [3,7,8]. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that a high level of confusion remains in terms of the diagnostic criteria for cachexia and malnutrition.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

The controversy for diagnosing sarcopenia is even more resounding than that over the definition of cachexia. This term was originally used to define age-related SM disorders; however, it has evolved and is now used to describe SM decline in chronic diseases states and several other conditions including starvation, denervation, immobilization, and physical inactivity [9]. The main area of divergence in the definition of sarcopenia revolved around the inclusion of SM function or strength impairments. In the elderly and for multiple international organizations, sarcopenia is defined as functional impairment combined with low muscle mass [9], while in the cancer field cachexia specialists focus on SM mass loss alone [7,10]. This difference in definitions may be explained by the expected consequence of the muscle disorders in each chronic illness, with a given group including in their definition of sarcopenia, the most relevant item(s) for their setting. In the elderly, autonomy is a preoccupying issue and for gerontologists, sarcopenia includes not only loss of muscle mass but also muscle functional impairment, with sarcopenia being an element of the larger syndrome of frailty [11–15]. For oncologists, studies of the body composition of cancer patients reveal that it is specifically the loss of SM that predicts risk of postoperative complications, chemotherapy toxicity, and mortality [16,17]. Much remains to be clarified in terms of defining sarcopenia, whether it be in the definition of muscle function impairment, the best test to assess it (walking speed or grip strength), or in the threshold values for muscle wasting (dependent on ethnic groups or initial BMI).

Given the differences in the contexts of the definitions of sarcopenia, it is in turn difficult to have a unique criterion to evaluate the effects of a treatment and particularly the effects of a specific nutritional support. The aim of using a specific nutriment approach is dependent on the context; it may be to improve the balance between skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle proteolysis when the focus is the underlying metabolic mechanisms, to increase muscle mass in a setting where improving disease outcome is the important, or improving muscle function or strength in the context of frailty in the elderly.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

Nonhuman Primates
Bruce J. Bernacky, … Christian R. Abee, in Laboratory Animal Medicine (Second Edition), 2002

E. Nutritional Diseases
Some nutritional diseases of nonhuman primates are summarized in Table LXV (see next page). Most are due to vitamin deficiencies, with one instance of vitamin overfeeding. Simian bone disease, also known as nutritional hyperparathyroidism due to insufficient calcium or improper calcium–phosphorus ratio in the diet, is included although its occurrence is now rare with the use of commercially formulated feeds. Errors can and have occurred during feed manufacture, and a specific batch of a commercial diet may be misformulated (Ratterree et al., 1990; Eisele et al., 1992). Table LXV is not inclusive of nutritional diseases but provides a synopsis of those commonly reported. References in the table footnotes can be used to find more detail on these conditions.Deficiency Disorder of Nutrients Essay

 

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