Critical Reasoning Essay Paper

Critical Reasoning Essay Paper

Critical Reasoning Essay Paper

Question 1

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Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapter 10

Reference: Jackson, D. & Newberry, P. (2016). Critical Thinking: A User’s Manual (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Critical Reasoning Essay Paper

Permalink: 

  • Link (library article): 
  • Link (library article): 
  • Link (website): 

 

Instructions
As the text points out, causal reasoning is used in clinical studies. As a professional in the health field, you will undoubtedly be referring to cause/effect studies for the rest of your professional life. In this discussion, you are asked to expand and deepen your understanding of clinical studies.Critical Reasoning Essay Paper

In 1999, a study on the causes of myopia appeared in the prestigious journal Nature (Quinn). The study received wide-spread publicity in leading newspapers, such as the New York Times, and on television outlets, such as CBS and CNN. Within a year, another article in Naturefollowed up the 1999 study (Zadnik). The studies had dramatically different findings.

Using what you have learned from the text, as well as any other sources you may find useful (including the websites in the Required Resources), analyze and evaluate the methodology of both studies and how methodology affected the differences in how the studies were reported.

Everyday people are face with numerous decisions to make and problems to solve. Decision-making and problem solving is the very core in many aspects of life, yet some decision making can be very difficult to accomplish. Critical Reasoning Essay Paper
Critical thinking is an important skill to acquire, by obtaining this skill; a person will be able to make an appropriate decisions.
What is critical thinking? According to the reading, critical thinking is “reacting with systematic evaluation to what you have read or heard.” It is important for a person to think critically in order to better understand a certain situation. Critical thinking skills allows people to see all sides of an issue, look for creative alternatives, approaches to problems, and make well thought out decisions. When a person understands what the writer or speaker is trying to convey, they are able to agree or disagree with the writer or speaker because they have the knowledge to make their decision. The skills an individual needs to obtain in order to think critically is first, consider the importance of the issue. Once the issue is important to the individual, they can begin searching for more information by ask important question pertaining to the issue and reflecting on the answers. Asking the right questions gives a person more specific information about the issue. Once they identifying the correct facts they will be able to think collaboratively of different ways to proceed. With this understanding, the individual can reach an opinion base on the available information and arrive at a conclusion. A critical thinker looks at all the options prior to making the final decision Critical Reasoning Essay Paper

The concepts of critical thinking and creative thinking are both gaining increasing importance in the world today. Critical thinking allows people to understand difficult concepts in a manner that is clearer and more defined. They can more readily understand those concepts if they employ critical thinking. In all portions of everyday life, a person is expected to make independent judgments. Those judgments are based on experience and knowledge. Without the ability to think critically, every situation that a person comes across would have to be considered in isolation from all other situations. When a person encounters a problem that is a new one, he or she may be able to use critical thinking to solve those problems. One
Critical thinking also helps in decision-making. Both problem solving and decision-making abilities are vital to a prosperous business. Persons who are critical thinkers can make a difference in the companies in which they are employed. Today?s corporations must first recognize that there is a real need for critical thinkers. It is important for both the top management down the line. Critical thinking must be taught and built in to the way the company or organization performs its business. In fact, companies and organizations must embrace the concept of critical thinking. Critical thinking can lead to success story after success story. This type of impact gives any company or organization credibility. Critical Reasoning Essay Paper According to Supon, one of the fundamental purposes of teaching critical thinking is to enhance the abilities of students to become critical thinkers. Corporate leaders, educational researchers, employers, and parents have continually pushed teachers to assist their students in the development of critical thinking ability. Critical thinking is a skill that ?involved not only knowledge of content by also concept formation and analysis, reasoning and drawing conclusions, recognizing and avoiding contradiction, and other essential cognitive activities? (Supon, 1998). There are proposed reasons for the emphasis that is currently on critical thinking. Many factors can be related to this emphasis. They include the societal factors of economic shifts Critical Reasoning Essay Paper
Critical reasoning – is both active and open to alternative points of view
Passive reading/listening – writing down notes in lecture, you are passive in the sense that you don’t evaluate which statements to accept and which to reject and you don’t consider the speakers pattern of reasoning.
Mere disagreement – is both critical and active but is not open to alternative views. You enter with your own established beliefs already in mind.
Cooperative enterprise – two people have opposing views; one person sets his beliefs aside and help the other to strengthen his argument.
Critical reasoning misconceptions – it’s too rigid or linear, it supposes that there is a right and wrong point of view.Critical Reasoning Essay Paper

Note that when we give explanations, we are not trying to prove that anything happens or that anything is the case. We already know that humans walk on two legs and that software can be downloaded. What we want to know is why or how.
This, then, is the difference between explanation and argument. When we give arguments, we are trying to prove or demonstrate something, whereas when we give explanations, we are trying to say why or how something that is already known (or thought to be known) to happen or to be the case happens or is the case. This distinction suggests that the best way to determine whether a passage contains an argument or an explanation is to ask yourself whether the author is trying to prove something or trying to get you to understand why something is the case or how something happensDeductive argument – has a structure that makes the conclusion follow necessarily from the premises.
Ex. Eliminating plea bargaining would overwhelm the court system with criminal trials. If it would do this, then plea bargaining should not be eliminated. Therefore, plea bargaining should not be eliminated.Critical Reasoning Essay Paper

Inductive argument – the premise describes a characteristic found in a sample (50 cities). This conclusion asserts that it is likely this same characteristic is true of a larger population. Critical Reasoning Essay Paper

 

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