Consider the Audience

• Analyzing the audience is central to the speechmaking process; consider your audience at every step of the way in preparing and presenting your speech. • Gather information about your audience by asking questions or surveying them more formally. • Summarize and analyze the information you have gathered.

Select and Narrow Your Topic

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• Consider the audience: Who are your listeners and what do they expect? • Consider the occasion: What is the reason for the speech? • Consider your own interests and skills: What are your strengths?

Determine Your Purpose

• Decide whether your general speech purpose is to inform, to persuade, or

to entertain, or a combination of these goals. • Decide on your specific purpose:

What do you want your listeners to be able to do after you finish your speech? • Use your specific purpose to guide

you in connecting your message to your audience.

Develop Your Central Idea

• State your central idea for your speech in one sentence. • Your central idea should be a single idea

presented in clear, specific language. • Relate your central idea to your audience.

Generate Main Ideas

• Determine whether your central idea can be supported with logical divisions using a topical arrangement. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with reasons the idea is true. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with a series of steps.

Gather Supporting Material

• Remember that most of what you say consists of supporting material such

as stories, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions.

• The best supporting material both clarifies your major ideas and holds your listeners’ attention. • Supporting material that is personal, concrete, and appealing to the listeners’

senses is often the most interesting.

Organize Your Speech

• Remember the maxim: Tell us what you’re going to tell us (introduction); tell us (body); and tell us what you told us (conclusion). • Outline your main ideas by topic, chronologically, spatially, by cause and effect, or by problem and solution. • Use signposts to clarify the overall structure of your message.

Rehearse Your Speech

• Prepare speaking notes and practice using them well in advance of your speaking date. • Rehearse your speech out loud, standing as you would stand while delivering your speech. • Practice with well-chosen visual aids that are big, simple, and appropriate for your audience.

Deliver Your Speech

• Look at individual listeners. • Use movement and gestures that fit your natural style of speaking.

Why Do You Need This New Edition? If you’re wondering why you should buy this new edition of Public Speaking: An Audience- Centered Approach, here are eight good reasons!

1. We’ve kept the best and improved the rest. The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach continues its unique focus on the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point in the speech- making process, but is now an easier-to-use and more effec- tive learning tool than ever.

2. We’ve streamlined the book to 16 chapters, so that every chapter can be covered during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now combines an introduction to public speaking with an overview of the audience-centered model. Chapter 6 now combines information on gathering supporting mate- rial with advice on how to integrate supporting material into a speech.

3. New end-of-chapter Study Guides are designed to help you retain and apply chapter concepts. Study Guides feature chapter summaries; “Using What You’ve Learned” questions posing realistic scenarios; “A Question of Ethics” to reinforce the importance of ethical speaking; and referrals to selected online resources that help you find resources to use in your own speeches.

4. More tables and Recap boxes summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. These frequent reviews help you check understanding, study for exams, and rehearse material to aid retention.

5. The eighth edition continues our popular focus on control- ling speaking anxiety, developed through expanded and updated coverage of communication apprehension in Chapter 1 and reinforced with tips and reminders in “Confidently Connecting with Your Audience” features in the margins of every chapter.

6. New and expanded coverage of key communication theories and current research, including studies of anxiety styles in Chapter 1, introductions to social judgment theory in Chapter 14, and emotional response theory in Chapter 15, help you apply recent theories and findings.

7. Every chapter of the eighth edition boasts engaging fresh examples to help you connect concepts to your own life and interests, including new references to contemporary technology such as social media sites in Chapter 4 and iPads in Chapter 12.

8. New speeches, including Barack Obama’s inaugural speech, contribute to an impressive sample speech appendix that will inspire and instruct you as you work with your own material.

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Public Speaking

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8 Public SpeakingAN AUDIENCE-CENTERED APPROACH Steven A. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

Susan J. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

E D

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Allyn & Bacon Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River

Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

Editor-in-Chief, Communication: Karon Bowers Development Editor: Sheralee Connors Editorial Assistant: Megan Sweeney Marketing Manager: Blair Tuckman Media Producer: Megan Higginbotham Project Manager: Anne Ricigliano Project Coordination, Text Design, and Electronic Page Makeup: Nesbitt Graphics, Inc. Cover Design Manager: Anne Nieglos Cover Designer: Joseph DePinho Cover Art: William Low Manufacturing Buyer: Mary Ann Gloriande Printer and Binder: Quad Graphics/Dubuque Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color/Hagerstown

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Beebe, Steven A.

Public speaking : an audience-centered approach / Steven A. Beebe, Susan J. Beebe. — 8th ed. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-78462-2 (alk. paper)

1. Public speaking. 2. Oral communication. I. Beebe, Susan J. II. Title. PN4129.15.B43 2012 808.5’1—dc22

2010054152

Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States. To obtain permission to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116, fax: (617) 671-2290. For information regarding permissions, call (617) 671-2295 or e-mail: permissionsus@pearson.com.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—QGD—14 13 12 11

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-78462-2 www.pearsonhighered.com ISBN-10: 0-205-78462-3

Dedicated to our parents, Russell and Muriel Beebe and Herb and Jane Dye

And to our children, Mark, Matthew, and Brittany Beebe

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ix

1 Speaking with Confidence 3 2 Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 3 Listening to Speeches 49 4 Analyzing Your Audience 77 5 Developing Your Speech 111 6 Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 7 Organizing Your Speech 161 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 9 Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203

10 Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 11 Delivering Your Speech 235 12 Using Presentation Aids 265 13 Speaking to Inform 289 14 Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 15 Using Persuasive Strategies 337 16 Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373

Epilogue 390

Appendix A Speaking in Small Groups 392

Appendix B Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400

Brief Contents

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Contents

Preface xxiii

Speaking with Confidence 3 Why Study Public Speaking? 4

Empowerment 4 ● Employment 4

The Communication Process 5 Communication as Action 5 ● Communication as Interaction 6 ● Communication as Transaction 7

The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking 7 LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Martin Luther King Jr. 8

Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker 9

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Gather Visual Supporting Material 25

Organize Your Speech 25

Select and Narrow Your Topic 20 Determine Your Purpose 21

Determine Your General Purpose 21 ● Determine Your Specific Purpose 21

Develop Your Central Idea 22 Generate the Main Ideas 22 Gather Supporting Material 23

Gather Interesting Supporting Material 23

Understand Your Nervousness 10 ● How to Build Your Confidence 13

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Begin with the End in Mind 17

An Overview of Audience-Centered Public Speaking 17 Consider Your Audience 19

Gather and Analyze Information about Your Audience 19 ● Consider the Culturally Diverse Backgrounds of Your Audience 19

Rehearse Your Speech 27

Deliver Your Speech 27

SAMPLE SPEECH 29

STUDY GUIDE 30

SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Confidence as a Public Speaker 33

Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 Speaking Freely 37

Free Speech and the U.S. Constitution 37 ● Free Speech in the Twentieth Century 37 ● Free Speech in the Twenty-first Century 38

Speaking Ethically 39 Have a Clear, Responsible Goal 39

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mohandas Gandhi 40

Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning 40 ● Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences 41 ● Be Honest 41 ● Don’t Plagiarize 42

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Remember That You Will Look More Confident Than You May Feel 42

SAMPLE ORAL CITATION 44

Speaking Credibly 44

STUDY GUIDE 46

SPEECH WORKSHOP Avoiding Plagiarism 47

Listening to Speeches 49 Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening 51

Managing Information Overload 52 ● Overcoming Personal Concerns 53 ● Reducing Outside Distractions 53 ● Overcoming Prejudice 54 ● Using Differences between Speech Rate and Thought Rate 54 ● Managing Receiver Apprehension 55

How to Become a Better Listener 55 Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears 56 ● Listen Mindfully 57

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS César Chávez 58

Listen Skillfully 59 ● Listen Ethically 62

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Improving Listening and Critical Thinking Skills 63 Separate Facts from Inferences 63 ● Evaluate the Quality of Evidence 64 ● Evaluate the Underlying Logic and Reasoning 65

Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches 65 Understanding Criteria for Evaluating Speeches 66 ● Identifying and Analyzing Rhetorical Strategies 68 ● Giving Feedback to Others 69 ● Giving Feedback to Yourself 70

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Look for Positive Listener Support 71

STUDY GUIDE 72

SPEECH WORKSHOP Evaluating a Speaker’s Rhetorical Effectiveness 74

Analyzing Your Audience 77 Gathering Information about Your Audience 79 Analyzing Information about Your Audience 80

Look for Audience Member Similarities 81 ● Look for Audience Member Differences 82 ● Establish Common Ground with Your Audience 82

Adapting to Your Audience 82

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Winston Churchill 83

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Learn as Much as You Can about Your Audience 83

Analyzing Your Audience before You Speak 84 Demographic Audience Analysis 84 ● Psychological Audience Analysis 94 ● Situational Audience Analysis 96

Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak 99

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Consider Your Audience 99

Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues 100 ● Responding to Nonverbal Cues 101 ● Strategies for Customizing Your Message to Your Audience 101

Analyzing Your Audience after You Speak 103 Nonverbal Responses 104 ● Verbal Responses 104 ● Survey Responses 104 ● Behavioral Responses 105

STUDY GUIDE 106

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing Communication Strategies to Adapt to Your Audience 108

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Developing Your Speech 111 Select and Narrow Your Topic 112

Guidelines for Selecting a Topic 113

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Select an Interesting Topic 113

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Frederick Douglass 115

Strategies for Selecting a Topic 115 ● Narrowing the Topic 117

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Select and Narrow Your Topic 117

Determine Your Purpose 118 General Purpose 118 ● Specific Purpose 119

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Determine Your Purpose 121

Develop Your Central Idea 121 A Complete Declarative Sentence 122 ● Direct, Specific Language 122

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Develop Your Central Idea 123 ● A Single Idea 123 ● An Audience-Centered Idea 123

Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas 124 Generating Your Main Ideas 124 ● Previewing Your Main Ideas 125

Meanwhile, Back at the Computer . . . 126

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Generate Your Main Ideas 127

STUDY GUIDE 128

SPEECH WORKSHOP Strategies for Selecting a Speech Topic 130

Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 Sources of Supporting Material 134

Personal Knowledge and Experience 134 ● The Internet 134 ● Online Databases 135 ● Traditional Library Holdings 137 ● Interviews 139

Research Strategies 141 Develop a Preliminary Bibliography 141 ● Locate Resources 142 ● Assess the Usefulness of Resources 142 ● Take Notes 143

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Gather Supporting Material 143

Identify Possible Presentation Aids 144

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Types of Supporting Material 144 Illustrations 145

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Eleanor Roosevelt 146

Descriptions and Explanations 147 ● Definitions 148 ● Analogies 149 ● Statistics 150 ● Opinions 152

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Prepare Early 153

The Best Supporting Material 154

STUDY GUIDE 156

SPEECH WORKSHOP Identifying a Variety of Supporting Material for Your Speech 158

Organizing Your Speech 161 Organizing Your Main Ideas 163

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Organize Your Message 163

Organizing Ideas Topically 163 ● Ordering Ideas Chronologically 164 ● Arranging Ideas Spatially 166 ● Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect 166

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Desmond Tutu 166

Organizing Ideas by Problem-Solution 167 ● Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization 169

Subdividing Your Main Ideas 170 Integrating Your Supporting Material 170

Prepare Your Supporting Material 170 ● Organize Your Supporting Material 171

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Organize Your Speech 172

Incorporate Your Supporting Material into Your Speech 173

Developing Signposts 173

SAMPLE INTEGRATION OF SUPPORTING MATERIAL 173

Transitions 174 ● Previews 175 ● Summaries 176

Supplementing Signposts with Presentation Aids 177

STUDY GUIDE 178

SPEECH WORKSHOP Organizing Your Ideas . To continue with the answer check on mycoursewriter.com/

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