Compare and contrast the perspectives John B Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman e.g. assumptions, principles, scope, etc. and describes how each perspective relates to the field of modern-day psychology. Give examples.
One approach to help you with the paper is to provide a tentative outline and look at information from various sources for each section, which you can draw on for your final paper. This is approach this response takes. Like other academic assignments, this paper will include an introduction, body and conclusion.
The tentative outline might look something to the effect:
I. Introduction (introduce topic; include purpose statement: The purpose of this paper is to…)
II. John B. Watson (e.g. theory, principles, contributions to modern psychology, scope/application, research and comparisons)
III. B.F. Skinner (e.g. theory, principles, contributions to modern psychology, scope/application, research and comparisons)
IV. Edward C. Tolman (e.g. theory, principles, contributions to modern psychology, scope/application, research and comparisons)
V. Conclusion (tie up main points)
Now, let’s take a closer look at some research and comparisons that you can consider for each section.
1. John B. Watson (1878-1958):
John B. Watson was an American psychologist born in Greenville, S.C. He taught (1903-8) at the Univ. of Chicago and was professor and director (1908-20) of the psychological laboratory at Johns Hopkins. In 1913, Watson published an article outlining his ideas and indeed established a new school of psychology. It was new because Watson disagreed with Freud and found the latter’s views on human behavior philosophical to the point of mysticism (like Skinner). Like Skinnier, Watson also dismissed heredity as a significant factor in shaping human behavior. (1) Watson influenced the work of Skinner, which is implication in behaviorism in its present day form (e.g., behavioral modification discussed in more detail below).
? Like Skinner, Watson emphasized the study of observable behavior, rejecting introspection and theories of the unconscious mind.
? Watson studied the biology, physiology, and behavior of animals, inspired by the recent work of Ivan Pavlov. (1)
? He originated the school of psychology known as behaviorism, in which behavior is described in terms of physiological responses to stimuli. Watson formed ideas that would become a whole branch of psychology: behaviorism. (1) He influenced the later work of Skinner.
? Put out a challenge:In The Ways of Behaviorism, Watson states that behaviorism is the scientific study of human behavior. It is simply the study of what people do.
? Behaviorism, according to Watson, was intended to take psychology up to the same level as other sciences.
? Like Skinner, Watson is interested in control of behavior. The first task is to observe behavior and make predictions, then to take determine causal relationships.
? Behavior can be reduced to relationships between stimuli and responses, the S — R Model. A stimulus can be shown to cause a response or a response can be traced back to a stimulus. All behavior can be reduced to this basic component. According to Watson, “life’s most complicated acts are but combination of these simple stimulus- response patterns of behavior.” (2)
? Classical Conditioning is the process of learning to react to the environment. (2)
? So, like Skinner, he was an environmentalist e.g., environment shaped behavior, and this reductionist (ignore aspects of human existence, such as feelings and cognition)
* since he was a behaviorist, he was also an environmentalist
* argued that children could be made into any type of person desired
? Thus, unlike Skinner and Tolman, Watson also studied human being. He began studying the behavior of children, as well, concluding that humans were simply more complicated than animals but operated on the same principles. According to Watson, all animals were extremely complex machines that responded to situations according to their “wiring,” or nerve pathways that were conditioned by experience. (1)
E.g.”Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, beggarman and thief” (Watson). (1a)
Assumptions and Principles:
1. Human psychology has failed to make good its claim as a natural science. Due to a mistaken notion that its fields of facts are conscious phenomena and that introspection is the only direct method of ascertaining these facts, it has enmeshed itself in a series of speculative questions which, while fundamental to its present tenets, are not open to experimental treatment. In the pursuit of answers to these questions, it has become further and further divorced from contact with problems, which vitally concern human interest.
2. Psychology, as the behaviorist views it, is a purely objective, experimental branch of natural science which needs introspection as little as do the sciences of chemistry and physics. It is granted that the behavior of animals can be investigated without appeal to consciousness. Heretofore the viewpoint has been that such data have value only in so far as they can be interpreted by analogy in terms of consciousness. The position is taken here that the behavior of man and the behavior of animals must be considered on the same plane; as being equally essential to a general understanding of behavior. It can dispense with consciousness in a psychological sense. The separate observation of ‘states of consciousness’ is, on this assumption, no more a part of the task of the psychologist than of the physicist. We might call this the return to a non-reflective and have use of consciousness. In this sense consciousness may be said to be the instrument or tool with which all scientists work. Whether or not scientists properly use the tool at present is a concern for philosophy and not for psychology.
3. The study of the behavior of amoebae has value in and for themselves without reference to the behavior of man. Biological studies of race differentiation and inheritance form a separate …
This solution provides assistance in comparing and contrasting the perspectives of John B Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman e.g. assumptions, principles, scope, etc. and describes how each perspective relates to the field of modern-day psychology. The comparisons provide a comprehensive coverage of each theory, examples and references.
.To continue with the answer check on mycoursewriter.com/
Why Choose Us
Quality Homework Writing
Do you need to ace your test? We have qualified writers to assist you in writing 100% quality homework writing. Mycoursewriter offers students unique and personalized custom papers that help them in getting good grades. Our academic experts will assist you with your dissertation papers, thesis writing, research papers, term papers, and case study homework help. Our writers are experienced and have perfected the art of crafting the best essay writing papers regardless of your academic level. Order now and get our superb homework writing services.
Expert Academic Writers
A student needs professional assistance outside class time. Before hiring our writers, they undergo thorough tests and strict educational backgrounds. After passing a test, our writers undergo training to ensure they deliver expert professional papers to our customers. We ensure they meet the timely delivery of papers and follow our customers' provided instructions. Every writer is an ENL writer and is from the USA, Canada, UK, or Australia. Our experts approach papers effectively depending on their area of specialization.
Affordable Price Guarantees
Is the deal too good to be true? Mycoursewriter is the most affordable assignment help website on the market. We consider students' daily needs for academic help. Our paper costs are reasonably priced to approximately 90% of students around the globe. Our main aim is to ensure students achieve academic excellence, and we believe inconsiderable prices should not hinder students from getting quality homework writing help. In case of any dissatisfaction, we offer unlimited revisions and rewrites without extra charges.
Timely delivery of papers
Tight deadline? Is your paper due in the next few hours? Worry no more. Our writers are here for your rescue. Many college students find it hard to balance their social and academic life and get caught up with academic deadlines. Drafting your paper at the last minute does not allow you to conduct extensive research and craft the correct answers. We have expert writers ready to work on your assignment writing. Urgent writing services are the ultimate solutions you need. We guarantee you timely delivery of papers at your convenience and specified time delivery of the customer.
100% Original Tasks
The ultimate deal-breaker in achieving good grades is submitting imitative papers. Plagiarism is a breach of examination standards and has serious consequences. Students need to deliver papers written in their understanding by paraphrasing their research findings and relevant citations. Our expert's primary consideration is providing free plagiarized papers that meet the lecturers' requirements. Our editors will proofread your paper before delivery ad ensure your papers will not be substandard. We guarantee extreme originality, and in case of any customer concerns, we offer a plagiarism report.
All Round the clock Customer Support
Our website is user-friendly and super useful! Mycoursewriter is the most trusted online writing website always available to provide you with assignment writing services that you need. Our primary concern is meeting customer need specifications by our friendly customer support team that Is available all the time. Our website usability is self-learnable but in case of any problem, feel free to contact us directly through our website email: email@example.com. We have diligently satisfied thousands of students, and you can witness this on our sites' review page.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
Advantages of Using Our Assignment writing Services
Mycoursewriter welcomes you for superb essay writing services. We are a legit site offering help with your most challenging homework writing assignments at affordable prices. Your essay paper will be assigned to a professional writer who will craft the paper from scratch according to your provided instructions.
Essay writing is a common assignment writing for most college students. It takes a lot of time to craft a complete perfect essay. Mycourserwiter offers the best essay writing and proofreading services for most college students. Your paper is assigned to an expert writer who does thorough research on fresh ideas and personalizes your essay paper according to your assignment writing guidelines. Our essays are entirely exceptional and undergo a strict procedure that includes papers free from plagiarism and thorough proofreading.
Admission and Business Papers
Writing an admission paper is not every student's desire, and this should not hinder any student from earning an admission. Writing a perfect personal statement to earn a position in a dream school or job can be stressful. Personal statements should display a high level of confidence and uniqueness. Admission essays require you to have a vast knowledge of the current happenings in the world and knowhow of the business world. We have qualified writers with skills who will write your admission paper through comprehensive research. All you have to do is provide us with little details about yourself, instructions and our writers will craft a perfect paper for you.
Editing and Proofreading
Mycoursewriter offers you assignment writing services free from grammatical and formatting mistakes. An error-free paper is significant in scoring the desired maximum grades. We have a team of editors who will go through your paper after our expert writers have delivered their fully crafted papers. Our writers will cover all the aspects of your paper instructions, such as fonts, spacing, and educational formats. Our team of editors will check through your paper to make sure it meets the formatting style provided in the paper instructions. Under no circumstances will a poorly formatted paper will be forwarded to you as our team of editors will ensure careful proofreading.
Assignment writing is part of a learning process, and one may not have the knowledge to answer all questions correctly. This should not be a stress to you as we have qualified essay writing experts to help you. Our qualified writers are holders of PhDs, Degrees, and Masters in different areas of study and can handle any papers regardless of the complexity. Multiple assignments may be challenging to finish on time. Our skilled professional writers are here to assist you in crafting all the correct answers for your assignment. Stop stressing about your homework writing and place an order with us, and our expert writers will provide you with the best assignment help.