Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

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The next step in the process is to begin identifying the challenges and impediments to implementing a quality improvement plan. In the analysis consider the individuals affected by the change as well as the cost of implementing the quality improvement plan.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

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By Day 4
Post a description of some of the proposed action steps for implementing improved practice, and explain where potential challenges might compromise your proposed improvement project. Describe what resources are needed for your solution, and explain whether or not those resources are cost-effective. Continue to collaborate with the selected individuals in your practice environment as needed in the development of the Practice Experience Project, and share this information with your group.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Week 1 Post
Main post
The patient, center-practice safety issue, is at hospitals is Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in the Medical Intensive Care Units (MICU). CLABSI is an infection that occurs in the bloodstream through the central line is infected with germs (bacteria or a virus). This infection is laboratory-confirmed and develops within 48 hours of its placement in the central line (Spath, 2018). CLABSI is a significant patient safety issue for all healthcare systems. According to Vessnsta, Smith, Niedner, and Lin (2011), that CLABSI affects between 250,000 and 500,00 patients every year and a 30 percent mortality rate. The manifestations of the CLABSI can have significant impacts on the patient’s age, existing chronic illnesses, and immune-suppressed state (Spath, 2018). The quality director at my hospital has CLABSI groups that meet every month to shows departments the data of the CLABSI rates in the hospital. The group also provides data from the National Patient Safety Goals (NPSG) to help educate the staff.
Reasons for Addressing the Problem
CLABSI is a patient safety issue that can be prevented by the healthcare system. CLABSI has an impact on the healthcare system and patient safety. CLABSI increases patient mortality rates and more extended hospital stays and can cost up to millions of dollars a year to treat the infection. Also, healthcare workers are not provided the correct education and train correctly. Most central lines are not in a sterile environment and are being inserted at the bedside alongside ultrasound in the general medical wards and the intensive care unit (Yoder-Wise, 2019). Non- tunneled catheters are the commonly used catheters though they tend to be at high risk of CLABSI. Healthcare systems need to provide training for healthcare workers and standardized treatment procedures.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay
Improvement Areas
The improvement areas is to observance of good hygiene, monitoring of the checklist, removal of unrequired central lines, use of subclavian vein, use of full-body drape during insertion of central venous catheters and use of experienced providers during ultrasound experiments are some of the main guidelines which can be improved during insertion (Yoder-Wise, 2019). The maintenance area also needs to be improved by doing a daily routine of disinfecting the catheters before the lines are assessed. The central line should be removed once it is no longer required to minimize the reinfection chances. The staff and patients can be educated on preventing CLABSI.
References
Spath, P. (2018). Introduction to healthcare quality management (3rded.). Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press.
Yoder-Wise, P.S. (2019). Leading and managing in nursing (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
https://www.cdc.gov/hai/bsi/clabsi-resources.html
Week 2 Post
Main Discussion
Central line-associated bloodstream infection(CLABSI) is the core cause of thousands of deaths across the world. Central line-associated bloodstream infection occurs when germs pass through the central line and enter into the bloodstream. A central line is a catheter that doctors use to give medication or fluids and is also used to collect blood. It is usually placed in large veins. Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay
Since Central line-associated bloodstream infection is a threat to practice problems, healthcare workers need to put the specific and intensive measures to prevent the CLABSI from occurring. Research shows that about 71,900 of CLABSI infections occur annually in the U.S hospitals. From the interviewed leaders, it was found that several measures were very effective in preventing the disease (Herc et al., .2017). The evident measures ensure proper adherence to the recommended insertion procedure and practices when it comes to central line application to prevent the infection where the central line is placed. Central line insertion procedures include ensuring proper hygiene in crucial body parts such hands, ensuring application of appropriate skin antiseptic, ensuring the skin prep agent has dried up completely before inserting the central line, and the nurse should use sterile gloves, cap, mask, sterile drape which is the large and sterile gown.
Other measures include; nurse ensuring central line practices are followed once the central line is put in place. Also, nurses should ensure proper hand hygiene before and after touching the line (Kramer et al. 2017). The last measure from the interviewer is to ensure the central line is removed as soon as possible after its use since earlier removal minimizes the chance of infection. Various challenges were witnessed in the data obtaining process, where the selected vital leaders were not willing to give the detailed data they were too confidential. Another challenge was the absence of key leaders, and others could not be accessed who could provide more information about the practice problem. The interviewed leaders were incorporative during the interview.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay
The quality indicator in the literature review is measured through several central lines associated with infection in hospitals to see the indication of the output quality. A quality indicator is used to measure the progress of the put measures in place to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (Pronovost et al. 2016). It is done through CLABSI surveillance, benchmarking, and public reporting. The data collected had a few gaps that need additional data, which crucial that the data be obtained from various sources, including patients. It should be understood that patients can also help prevent the occurrence of CLABSI. Another source for additional data would be the form of the nurses.
From the discussion, CLABSI, as a practice problem in medical intensive care, is highly relevant for nursing practices. This is because nurses are mostly in contact with patients in medical intensive care, where this infection is likely to occur.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

References
Herc, E., Patel, P., Washer, L. L., Conlon, A., Flanders, S. A., & Chopra, V. (2017). A model to predict central-line–associated bloodstream infection among patients with peripherally inserted central catheters: the MPC score. infection control & hospital epidemiology, 38(10), 1155-1166.
Kramer, R. D., Rogers, M. A., Conte, M., Mann, J., Saint, S., & Chopra, V. (2017). Are antimicrobial peripherally inserted central catheters associated with a reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infection? A systematic review and meta-analysis. American journal of infection control, 45(2), 108-114.
Pronovost, P. J., Watson, S. R., Goeschel, C. A., Hyzy, R. C., & Berenholtz, S. M. (2016). Sustaining reductions in central line-associated bloodstream infections in Michigan intensive care units: A 10-year analysis. American Journal of Medical Quality, 31(3), 197-202.
Viana Taveira, M. R., Lima, L. S., de Araújo, C. C., & de Mello, M. J. G. (2017). Risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infection in pediatric oncology patients with a totally implantable venous access port: A cohort study. Pediatric blood & cancer, 64(2), 336-342.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Week 3
Plan-Do-Study-Act
Plan-Do-Study-Act is an interactive, four-step problem-solving model for improving a situation or carrying out change (Jean-Louis, Edward, Patrick, & al., 2016). The model is a structured trial and error process that stands for plan, do, study, and act. Plan deals with the background, scope, goals, and causes of the issue. Do tries to find out what will work out. The study looks at the results for improvement in the process. The act dictates what to do after that and decides whether to act, abandon, or adopt. Several tools are used in the process, such as an audit tool, a processing map, and a line chart (S, W, & L, 2017). Each step of the model will help develop a plan for the central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in an intensive care unit. The improvement is incremental and requires repeated evaluations and refinement of the process. The first procedure will be to understand the definition and rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI).
Second is to invite infection prevention department staff to speak to the nurses about the Quality Improvement (QI) project whereby, with your help, they will also educate staff. In this case, they will understand the prevention bundle by checking what will work out for the setting with parts of the bundle. The third step will be to check the evidence, ask the staff to perform a literature review, and understand the surveillance audits for bundle adherence. Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay
Lastly, ask the nurses why they think the patient had the CLABSI. Later on, check on the monthly inspections to see if what we had set we are doing. As a result, you can decide whether you will act, adopt, or leave the project. The staff members will continue to offer their help in the practice project to ensure that we achieve the set goals. A favorable organizational climate will encourage staff to become involved in infection prevention and ensure that team gets infection prevention results regularly. Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

A bundle is a group of interventions related to a disease process, that when executed together, produce better outcomes than when implemented individually. Numerous studies done in the developed countries have shown that proper implementation of evidence based practices grouped together as central venous catheter bundle had brought a dramatic reduction in the incidence of CLABSI. Studies in developing countries had also shown high incidence of CLABSI and reduction in CLABSI rate albeit lesser than that of developed countries.

Studies from India have a shown a higher incidence of CLABSI and poor adherence to central line catheter bundle. Morbidity and mortality due to CLABSI is considerably high despite underreporting of such events. The development and publication of guidelines often does not lead to changes in clinical behavior and guidelines are rarely if ever, integrated into bedside practice in a timely fashion. The most effective means for achieving knowledge transfer remains an unanswered question across all medical disciplines. Our study aims to determine the compliance with CVC bundle in management of patients in medicine wards and ICU at All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi and the impact of intervention in the form of periodic physician education and feedback in compliance with CVC bundle and central line catheter related complications.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Review of literature

Ever since the introduction of central venous catheters in the early 1950s, it had varied uses and later numerous studies revealed that it was associated with a varied number of complications. Although mechanical complications were common in the early years of CVC use CLABSIs quickly became recognized as a serious complication associated with their usage.

Central venous catheter is defined as a catheter whose tip terminates in the great vessels. The great vessels are the aorta, pulmonary artery, superior vena cava,inferior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, internal jugular veins,subclavian veins, external iliac veins, common iliac veins,femoral veins, and, in neonates, the umbilical artery/vein.

Types :

Common types of central venous catheters are Non tunneled catheters, Tunneled catheters, Implantable ports, PICC.

A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is peripherally placed, but is considered a central catheter because its tip terminates in the central circulation. These venous catheters can also have single, double or triple lumens although single lumens are frequently used and are for intermediate to long term therapy for blood draws or infusions.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Complications of CVC:

Mechanical complications(4,9)include

Complication

Risk of complication at catheterization site

Internal jugular

Subclavian

Femoral

Pneumothorax

<0.1 to 0.2

1.5 to 3.1

NA

Hemothorax

NA

0.4 to 0.6

NA

Arterial punctures (%)

3

0.5

6.25

Malposition

Low risk (into inferior vena cava,

passing through right atrium)

High risk (crossing to

ascending internal jugular vein ,contralateral subclavian

vein)

Low risk (lumbar

venous plexus)Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Pneumothorax is a common complication with subclavian and IJV cannulations without the use of ultrasound. The use of real time ultrasound reduces the number of attempts and associated with a significantly lower failure rate with internal jugular vein ( Relative risk 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.33).

Limited evidence also exists for sublclavian and femoral routes in this metanalysis. Thus the chances of pneumothorax will be greatly reduced.

Pneumothorax is usually apparent immediately on Chest X rays and management may vary from simple observation to ICD placement with needle drainage needed for tension pneumothorax as emergency(11). Delayed pneumothorax is also known to occur with an incidence of 0.4%, more common with subclavian and with multiple attempts(12). Bedside ultrasonography allows diagnosis of pneumothorax to be made immediately with high sensitivity by clinician but is operator dependent(13).Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Misplacement of catheters occur commonly such as tip malposition or rarely such as within artery. It is common practice to assess tip position lying above carina for right sided catheters assuming pericardial reflection below carina and below carina for left sided catheters in view of acute angulation to superior venacava(14). Management varies depending on the complication such as repositioning of tip for tip malposition lying below carina or when lying with an artery, interventional radiologist or vascular surgeon opinion is sought and removed accordingly(15).

Arterial injuries are more common with femoral and internal jugular rather than subclavian approach. A systematic review of complications of central venous catheters revealed significantly more arterial punctures (3.0% vs 0.5%) and less malpositions(5.3% vs 9.3%) with jugular access(16). It leads to hematoma in approximately 40% of patients. The best way to prevent arterial injury is by ultrasound assistance during cannulation(17). Other rarer complications are local hematomas,cerebrovascular accidents mostly seen with arterial injuries via internal jugular access, arrhythmias, perforation of the vein or right atrium, chylothorax, pseudo aneurysm, AV fistulas, cardiac tamponade, guidewire loss and catheter embolisation etc. have been reported. These complications largely depend on the site of insertion and on operator experience. Such complications can be prevented by ultrasound guidance and proper techniques.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Infectious complications are most dreaded as it is associated with mortality rates upto 25% and in developing countries even up to 60% and prolong the duration of hospital stay and are largely preventable. Evidence based guidelines have been developed as the central venous catheter bundle which significantly decreases the incidence of infections as shown in below studies.CVC use in non ICU settings is associated with at least a 2 fold rise in infection rate than in ICU settings. However studies are very limited on the infection rates as well as on the preventive measures in non ICU settings.

Thrombotic complications range from 1.2 to 3 % in subclavian veins to up to 8 to 34% in femoral cannulations. Merrer et al in a randomized control trial found significantly increased incidence of thrombotic complications(21.5% vs1.9%,p<0.001)(18).This can be avoided by judicious site selection and proper flushing techniques (9).Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Every day the central venous catheters are accessed for a variety of purposes which may include frequent CVP monitoring to IV infusions. Every time the catheter is accessed it should be done in a sterile way after the port is scrubbed with antiseptics else the infection rate increases. Dressings should be changed regularly depending on the type and as indicated.

Risk factors for CLABSI :

Intrinsic factors

Extrinsic risk factors

Age – children more likely Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Prolonged hospitalization before CVC insertion

Underlying diseases or conditions—hematological

and immunological deficiencies, cardiovascular disease,

and gastrointestinal diseases

CVC duration, with the risk increasing with CVC dwell time

Male gender

Parenteral nutrition administration

Femoral or internal jugular access site

Multilumen CVCs

Lack of maximal sterile barriers

CVC insertion in an ICU or emergency department

Heavy microbial colonization at insertion site

The semi quantitative analysis of culture of Maki proved to be an effective and cost effective measure for the diagnosis of central venous catheter infections(19).

The study conducted by Pronovost et al in US which five basic measures hand washing, using full-barrier precautions during the insertion of central venous catheters, cleaning the skin with Chlorhexidine, avoiding the femoral site if possible and removal of unnecessary catheters significantly reduced the incidence of central venous line infections and served as a landmark study in the development of central venous catheter bundle(5). The study was conducted across 103 ICUs in Michigan in US and the rates of infection per 1000 catheter days were measured at 3 monthly intervals and the mean rate of infections decreased from 7.7 to 1.4 after 18 months.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

After this study numerous studies were conducted which reinforced the effectiveness of the central venous catheter bundle.

Parra et al demonstrated that even a simple educational program like 15 min lecture given to ICU personnel highlighting 10 evidence based strategies can result in a reduction in CLABSI rates. In his study CLABSI rates decreased from 4.22 to 2.94 infections per 1000 catheter days(20).

WHO conducted the Bacteremia zero project(21) to assess the applicability and effectiveness of the Michigan keystone ICU project in Spanish ICUs. This multifactorial nationwide intervention project was implemented between April 2008 and June 2010, with data collected at regular intervals to evaluate the progress of the project. A total of 192 ICUs (68% of all Spanish ICUs) participated in the project. The intervention was effective in reducing the incidence of CRBSI by approximately 50%in hospitals.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Burrel et al demonstrated the benefit of having a checklist incorporating both the clinician and patient bundle(22). During this study they found that the compliance with the checklist improved significantly and the infection rate decreased by 50% when the compliance was good.

A nationwide study was conducted in US by Furuya et al(23) to find out the central line bundle implementation in ICU and its impact on Bloodstream infections. They found that CL bundle is associated with lower infection rates only when compliance is high. Complying with any one of three CL Bundle elements resulted in decreased CLABSI rates of 38%. This study clearly demonstrated the compliance should be very high to show a demonstrable decrease in the central line infection rate and that on-going evaluation was necessary.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Previously it was uniformly thought that femoral line insertion were associated with a greater incidence of infections .However recent studies have shown that the difference to be insignificant. A study was conducted by Kedar S Deshpande(24) in New York where they found that there was no stastically significant difference in the incidence of infections between the three routes in case of major infections when catheter is inserted optimally, catheter care is performed by trained by trained intensive care unit staff although there was a higher case of infections in the femoral group(0.881/1000 catheter days subclavian, 2.0/1000 catheter days internal jugular vein, 5.96/1000 catheter days femoral catheter p=0.1338)Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Blood stream infections :

NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system) now renamed as NHSN (National Healthcare Safety Network) defines blood stream infections as presence of a recognized pathogen cultured from one or more blood cultures and organism cultured from blood not related to infection at another site or presence of at least one of fever, chills and hypotension with signs and symptoms and positive results not related to infection at another site and presence of at least one of the following: Common skin contaminant (e.g.diphtheroids, bacillus species, propionibacterium species, coagulase negative staphylococci or micrococci) cultured from two or more blood samples drawn on separate occasions or Common skin contaminant cultured from at least one blood culture in a sample from a patient with an intravascular catheter or Positive antigen test on blood (e.g., Haemophilusinfluenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, or group B streptococcus)(25).Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

CLABSI vs CRBSI :

Further 2 distinct terminologies are used in relation to central line infections these are used interchangeably usually though they are different.

A CLABSI ( central line associated blood stream infections) is defined as BSI if a CVC was present at the time of or within 48 hrs before the defining blood culture was obtained. There is no requirement to identify the organism on the catheter. This definition was developed for surveillance, not for diagnosis.

In contrast, a CRBSI (catheter related blood stream infection) requires that the CVC be in place at the time the positive blood culture was obtained and a positive quantitative or semi quantitative culture of the same organism from the catheter or time to positivity.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

The CLABSI definition is more practical than the CRBSI definition for surveillance. However, it may overestimate the true rate of CVC–related infections, as it can sometimes be difficult to determine infections related to the central line rather than remote unrecognized infections (for example, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, intra-abdominal abscess). Interobserver variability and a lack of standardization in CLABSI surveillance are other important limitations(26).

Usually the organism grown on culture is likely to be significant only when atleast 15 CFU or 10 *3 colonies are isolated of the same organism.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Catheter infection and colonization:

Catheter infection and colonization can occur by 3 routes –

Extra luminal from organisms migrating along the catheter surface,
Intraluminal through the ports or through contaminated fluids rarely,
Hematogenous from a source of infection elsewhere in the body.
Terminologies commonly used with regard to catheter infection and colonization are defined as follows (24)

1. Catheter infection

A. 15 CFU on catheter tip with the same bacteria and sensitivities (one different sensitivity included) in one or more blood cultures.

B. Resolution of clinical signs and symptoms of infection in 24–48 hrs after catheter removal regardless of bacterial growth either in blood or on catheter tip.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

C. 15 CFU on catheter tip with local signs of infection regardless of blood culture bacterial growth.

2. Catheter colonization

A. Catheter tip with 15 CFU without growth in blood cultures and another source of infection found.

B. Catheter tip with 15 CFU and bacteria in peripheral blood cultures from another source of infection.

3. Contamination: <15 CFU on catheter tip without bacterial growth in blood cultures or bacteria in blood cultures from another source of infection.

Till date most of the studies have emphasized in catheter related infections as proposed by NHSN but as of date due to the aggressive use of broad spectrum antibiotics culture negativity is more common. So to remove this confounding factor any fever in a patient with central line which has no proven focus of infection elsewhere and resolves within 2 days after removal of central line can be taken as CLRI. This is based on the fact that catheter infection is “cured” only with removal or a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics; the relatively short courses of antibiotics used for ICU infections could not truly affect the catheter infection end point. However antibiotic use can result in negative cultures results even in the presence of catheter infection.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

This definition was implemented in a study by Kedar S Deshpande et al (24)in New York where they found that the overall incidence of central line infection is low whatever the route may be and there was no stastically significant increase in infections in the femoral route provided proper strict aseptic insertion and maintenance techniques are followed. Thus the dangerous mechanical complications of pneumothorax can be avoided.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Developing countries scenario:

Rosenthal et al (27)showed that the neonatal blood stream infections to be 5 times higher in developing countries than the developed countries. INICC conducted a surveillance study in 36 countries involving 422 ICUs and found a overall increased incidence of HAI. CLABSI rates were found to be 3 times higher when compared with USA (6.8 per 1000 CL days vs 2 per 1000 CL days). There was increased resistance to multiple gram negative organisms and MRSA was also more frequent in developing countries(28). Unadjusted crude excess mortality rate was also higher in developing countries both for CLABSI and VAP in the range of 7.3% to 15.2% Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Reasons for the differences in the degree of burden of HAIs in developing countries include the following: Limited knowledge and training in basic infection prevention and control , Limited awareness of the dangers associated with HAIs , Inadequate infrastructure and limited resources, Poor adherence to routine hand hygiene, Reuse of equipment (for example, needles, gloves) , Poor environmental hygiene and overcrowding, Understaffing, Inappropriate and prolonged use of antimicrobials and invasive devices , Limited local and national policies and guidelines, Variable adherence to official regulations or legal frameworks, where they exist and Insufficient administrative support.

A quasi experimental study was conducted by Apisarnthanarak et al in Thailand where he found improved adherence to central line bundle particularly hand hygiene improved significantly after intervention from 8% to 54% and CA-BSI decreased significantly from 14 per 1000 catheter days to 1.4 per 1000 catheter days(29) .Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Indian scenario:

Indian studies have shown that the incidence if central venous catheter infections are 3 to 4 times higher in our settings and that gram negative bacteria and fungi are more common in our settings compared to gram positive infections in western settings(30)(31), The Study conducted by Pawar et al in Escort hospital revealed that gram negative bacilli had a higher prevalence ( 71% ) as against western settings where gram positive organisms account for 70 % . They also found that the duration of catheterization, coexistent infections and increased temperature were the important predictors of CLABSI.

A study was conducted in 12 Indian ICUs by INICC which revealed a higher incidence in our settings and a overall poor adoption of the catheter bundle practices and the incidence gradually and progressively decreased after proper practices (6,18). Prospective surveillance in Indian ICUs yielded a central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CVC-BSI) rate of 7.92 per 1000 catheter-days(18). The incidence of central venous catheter infections then decreased subsequently after the adoption of proper practices. The study also revealed that proper education; performance feedback and outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI rates significantly improved infection control practices and brought a 54% decline in CLABSI incidence(6).Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

INICC conducted a prospective before and after cohort study in eight Indian cities where they found implementation of six components of INICC simultaneously resulted in a significant reduction in CLABSI from 6.4 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days to 3.9 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days resulting in 53% CLABSI rate reduction which was highly significant(31).

Some studies had shown that empowering the nurses with the central venous bundle and to interfere if the proper practices are not followed will go a long way in the further reduction of CLABSIs. However in spite much of the reported successes in ICU population the non ICU population are still at a significant risk of infection. In developing countries empowering the nurses is still a long way to go as understaffing and proper techniques are still not adopted(15,6). Still application of inexpensive and practical infection prevention efforts, such as improved hand hygiene and removal of CVCs when they are no longer needed, can have a major impact on CLABSI rates.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

IHI central venous catheter bundle was implemented as a project in 5 million lives campaign(32). Essential features are

Hand Hygiene:

The cornerstone of WHO’s “Clean Care Is Safer Care” campaign, the “My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene” approach, has resulted in the development of resources, including localized country-specific tools, to facilitate adherence to hand hygiene guidelines(33).

To minimize the risk of CLABSI associated with direct contact of the hands of health care personnel, the 2011 USCDC guideline recommends that hand hygiene be performed at the following times: before and after palpating the site of catheter insertion, before and after inserting the catheter, before and after accessing, replacing, repairing, or dressing the catheter. In addition, after the antiseptic has been applied to the site, further palpation of the insertion site should be avoided, unless aseptic technique is maintained (34).Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Adherence to hand hygiene is generally suboptimal with rates under 40 % in multiple studies. Improving hand hygiene can be achieved through multiple educational interventions.

Maximum sterile barrier precautions:

Raad et al conducted a prospective randomized control study to determine the effectiveness of the maximum sterile precautions .they found that the control group had 6 times higher infection rates and the infections occurred early and mostly were caused by skin microorganisms(35).

Skin preparation:

Reducing colonization at the insertion site is a crucial part of CLABSI prevention. It can be done with aqueous povidone iodine, aqueous chlorhexidine, alcoholic chlorhexidine or alcoholic povidone iodine. A recent meta analysis revealed that the 2 %chlorhexidine is associated with a 50% decrease in the CLABSI rates compared to povidone iodine(36). However, a recent study by Furuya et al (23) identified the importance of allowing chlorhexidine to dry fully before CVC insertion in order to optimize the use of this agent. An economic analysis suggested that using chlorhexidine rather than povidone iodine would result in a 1.6% decrease in CLABSIs and a 0.23% decrease in mortality, as well as save $113 per catheter used(37). The proposed mechanism is believed to be prolonged antimicrobial effect, its lack of inactivation to blood and serum and synergistic effect with alcohol. However whether chlorhexidine alcohol combination is superior to alcoholic povidone iodine is still unresolved.Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay The role of alcohol as antiseptic agent is often forgotten while describing chlorhexidine(38). CDC recommends >0.5% chlorhexidine alcohol to be used in case of central line insertion. However a recent Indian study conducted in 2013 by Kulkarni et al found that both povidone iodine and chlorhexidine had zero colony counts in skin preparation(39).

Maintenance:

Catheter site dressings can be done by transparent to semitransparent dressings or gauze dressings. The advantage with sterile dressings is that visual inspection can be done daily and they need to be changed once in 7 days unless gauze dressings which needs to be changed every 2 days. However if patient is in DIC or there is bleeding at the site of insertion gauze dressings are preferred(40).

The current recommendations are to assess the continued need for the catheter every day, perform catheter site care with Chlorhexidine at dressing changes, replace administration sets and add-on devices no more frequently than every 72 hours, unless contamination occurs, replace tubing used to administer blood, blood products, or lipids within 24 hours of start of infusion, change caps no more often than 72 hours or according to manufacturer’s recommendations and whenever the administration set is changed(41).Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Shapey et al conducted a prospective audit in a university teaching hospital and found that several breaches were there in CVC post insertion care with a failure rate of 44.8% mostly in caps, dressings and proposed that focus should be shifted to best practice implementation rather than further teaching(42)

The significance of catheter maintenance or post insertion bundle was demonstrated by Guerin et al who showed that implementation of a post insertion bundle in hospitals with good compliance to insertion bundle resulted in decrease in CLABSIs from 5.7 to 1.1 CLABSIs per catheter days. He emphasized that insertion bundle by itself was not sufficient. The interventions done were assessing the catheter site daily, changing dressings if necessary, application of chlorhexidine sponge at the catheter site, assessing the need for catheter daily, performing hand hygiene and alcohol scrub before accessing hub each time(43).Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

Using closed container systems than open container infusion systems had significantly reduced the incidence of CLABSI in many studies. This was demonstrated by Maki et al who conducted a study in 4 countries and found that switching to closed infusion containers decreased CLABSIs from 10.1 to 3.3 per 1000 catheter days RR 0.33 p<0.001(44).

Prompt removal of catheters:

Zingg et al in his study found that in several site visits, neither the nurse nor the treating physician knew why the patient had a CVC particularly in non ICU settings. They also showed that catheters in non ICU settings had a longer dwell time and lesser utilization(45) .

Trick et al in his study found that 4.6% of catheter-days were not justified. Both of these research groups also found differences in CVC use between ICU and non-ICU settings: unjustified CVC–days were more common in the non-ICU settings. The median duration of CVC days were more common for catheters that were unjustified rather than justified. They also proposed as to consider removal of CVC if needed when patient is getting transferred out of ICU (46). Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Essay

 

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Mathematics
Job WELL DONE! Thank You very much!!
Customer 452483, July 12th, 2021
Psychology
On point! Appreciate all the hard work!!
Customer 452483, August 16th, 2021
Communications
Well done! I thank you very much!
Customer 452483, July 9th, 2021
Microbiology
Perfect! Thank you guys for all of your great help! :)
Customer 452483, August 23rd, 2021
Nursing
Good job! Thank you
Customer 452487, October 17th, 2021
Communications
EXCELLENT JOB!!! VERY PLEASED :)
Customer 452483, July 5th, 2021
Healthcare Writing & Communications
Perfect! Thank you for also remembering to highlight the necessary words. Appreciate all of your help and hard work!
Customer 452483, November 7th, 2021
English 101
Perfect! Thank you so much for all of your hard work and help! Appreciate it!!
Customer 452483, August 30th, 2021
Sociology
Thank you so much! Appreciate it!
Customer 452483, November 8th, 2021
Nursing
Excellent job! super recommended.
Customer 452487, August 24th, 2021
Psychology
Thank you so much for all of your hard work & help! It’s perfect! Appreciate it!!
Customer 452483, September 11th, 2021
English 101
This writer was very quick with the draft and even faster with the revision! Thank you!
Customer 452603, May 30th, 2022
1159
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
2 pages
Average paper length
47%
Customers referred by a friend
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