Mr. Y is a 47 year old, mixed race [Asian/African ethnicity], male patient who presented to your office with severe right great toe pain. Onset of the pain was 2 days ago. Mr. Y denies any known trauma to his right foot or his great toe on that foot. His right great toe is red and became so swollen in the last day that he cannot put on his shoe.
Mr. Y has a history of hypertension for which he is taking HCTZ 25mg daily, Metopralol 50 mg twice daily, and Lisinopril 10 mg daily. He denies any other medical problems.
Results of the lab tests that were ordered:
Sed rate – 93; Glucose, random – 117 mg/dl; Hgb – 13.4 gm/dl; WBC – 8200/ccm with normal diff; Serum uric acid – 10.9 mg/dl; Serum creatinine – 1.2 mg/
Probably a name more familiar to us is Socrates (469–399 B.C.), famous for philosophy that focused on man, not nature. There is no evidence that Socrates wrote down his ideas; however, his student Plato wrote about the teachings of Socrates, indicating that Socrates believed in the immortal soul and that natural phenomena are merely shadows of eternal forms or ideas. Plato himself was a rationalist, meaning that we know with our reason.
Aristotle (384–322 B.C.) followed Socrates and Plato. His father was a physician, apparently framing Aristotle’s interest in the natural world. He is known for his contribution to logic. Aristotle believed that the highest degree of reality is what we perceive with our senses. Unlike Plato, Aristotle did not believe in forms as separate from the real objects. When an object has both form and matter, it is called a
substance. Aristotle said happiness was man’s goal and came through balance of the following: life of pleasure and enjoyment, life as a free and responsible citizen, and life as a thinker and philosopher.
During the Neoplatonism age in the third century, philosophy became known as the soul’s vehicle to return to its intelligible roots. There was an extrarational approach to reach union with the One. Thinking was that truth, and certainty was not found in this world. This was a revival of the “other worldliness” thinking of Plato.
The birth of Christianity and Western philosophy came at the death of classicism. Augustine of Hippo (A.D. 354–430) became a Christian and was attracted to Neoplatonism, where existence is divine. In that period, evil was defined as an absence or incompleteness. Saint Thomas Aquinas (A.D. 1225–1274) is credited with bringing theology and philosophy together.