Assignment: Medical Ethics Dilemma

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Assessment 1 Instructions: Applying Ethical Theory

Assignment: Medical Ethics Dilemma

Assignment: Medical Ethics Dilemma

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Applying Ethical Theory

What additional information might clarify your understanding of the situation?

Some of the additional information, in this case, may be ethical questions that may help the medical practitioners to make a better decision. For instance, it is good to check the directive in her file chart to see if it contains relevant information. It is also good to clarify her mental health history from the family. Her medical history would be more insightful and it would make her treatment easier. The son should say if he has more information about her apart from the notarized directive. It is also good to check the hospital database to find out whether there is more information to help in this case.  Given that her son came with a directive it is possible that she was taking an overdose with alcohol so that she could commit suicide. All the same, there is no evidence for this. Contacting her primary care provider can be effective as he or she would provide more information about her.

How would each of the three approaches to ethical theory respond to this case?

The ethical approaches that can be used in this case are consequentialist, virtue ethics and deontological. Deontologist looks at the wrongness or rightness of making a choice.  Consequentialism focuses on the consequences of a person’s actions. The virtue ethics looks at the person’s characters.

As earlier stated, deontological is that which puts its focus on rightness and wrongness. In this scenario, this is applicable to the matter of treating JoEllen given that her condition has worsened. One can be in a dilemma in this case since she has given directions not to be placed on a life machine yet that is what is required to save her life. As a healthcare provider, one cannot be sure of the right thing to do. However, the best thing to do is to save her life. On the other hand, it is good to think of her statement. One may assume that she did that probably due to an influence of alcohol. It is possible that the health directive was signed when she was of sound mind.

Consequentialism focuses on the consequences of a person’s actions which helps a person to make a decision. As such, this would be applicable to what followed after she took an overdose. By the time she was saying that she is not supposed to be here, she was not of sound mind (Gallagher, & Haworth, 2015). Taking the drug while drunk could have altered her decision. One cannot be sure by the statement “Not supposed to be here…” it could mean a hospital or else to be alive.

Virtue ethics shows the character of someone. One may look at her character by the choices she had made. It is possible that she took the overdose for suicidal purpose or because of the influence of alcohol. The virtue ethics here may apply to the healthcare practitioner. There is a need to make the right decision by applying medical ethics. Morally, the nurse can be able to provide the life support so to try and see if they can save her life. However, given that there was a notarized advance directive, this may not be legally acceptable especially if anything happens to her. The nurse may assume it is an attempted suicide and tries to save her life but the directives prevent her to do so.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach?

Deontological has some advantages and disadvantages as well. One advantage is that it allows one to have moral breathing room. Another advantage is that one will have the intuitive knowledge of wrong or right. It helps people to do away with some immoral actions. It allows people to be objective as they can act in any way so long as it is not prohibited (Holyoak, & Powell, 2016). However, some of its disadvantages are that it may conflict with moral duties. There is also a reduction of morality to some extent of avoiding bad actions.

One of the advantages of consequentialism is that there is equal opportunity for people to share their happiness thus making decisions more objective. It also provides a rule where people are able to base the ethical decisions (Quong, 2018). One disadvantage is that the physicians are forced to predict the consequences. Another disadvantage is that it excludes the minority. It is also possible that people get subjected to moral laws they are not in agreement with.

One advantage of virtue ethics is that it helps people to feel motivated such that they work on morality. Individuals are also able to map their moral reasoning. The main focus is building oneself into better individuals rather than focusing on theory. Some of the disadvantages are that they change with time thus lacking a definitive definition (Van Hooft, 2014). It does not give clear direction on what to be done on moral dilemmas. It as well has no concerns about right or wrong actions.

What is the right thing to do? Justify your position with clear reasoning.

The right thing to do here is to follow the directives as given not to place her on the life support. This can be supported by the theories we have discussed. we have seen that our morals shows us what is right and wrong and therefore to make a decision one must consider the laws, consequences and health directives. JoEllen only stated a few words and no one clearly understands what she meant. In this case, the best thing to do is to follow the notarized directive that was brought by her son. It is possible that her son was bringing this since they knew that she was not sober at the time and this could help the doctors to make the right decision.

 

 

References

Gallagher, T., & Haworth, R. (2015). Professional and ethical issues. Handbook of Professional and Ethical Practice for Psychologists, Counsellors and Psychotherapists108.

Holyoak, K. J., & Powell, D. (2016). Deontological coherence: A framework for commonsense moral reasoning. Psychological Bulletin142(11), 1179.

Quong, J. (2018). Consequentialism, Deontology, Contractualism, and Equality. The Oxford Handbook of Distributive Justice, 306.

Van Hooft, S. (2014). Understanding virtue ethics. Routledge.

Compose 2–3 pages in which you respond to a medical ethics dilemma.

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies:

· Competency 1: Explain the nature of ethical issues.

1. Explain the ethical issue in the scenario.

. Competency 2: Critically examine the contributions of key thinkers from the history of ethics.

2. Apply the three traditional theories of normative ethics to the situation.

. Competency 3: Engage in ethical debate.

3. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the three theories as they relate to this situation.

. Competency 4: Develop a position on a contemporary ethical issue.

4. Apply ethical theory to justify your ethical position on this issue.

. Competency 5: Communicate effectively in the context of personal and professional moral discourse.

5. Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of professional communities.

Context

Context

Ethics is about doing what is right. Traditional normative theories express this goal in one of three ways:

. Virtue Ethics

6. Seek personal excellence by cultivating virtuous habits.

6. Aristotle: Achieve self-sufficiency through moderation.

. Deontological Ethics

7. Do your duty by following the rules.

7. Kant: Act as any rational agent is bound by universal law.

. Consequentialist Ethics

8. Try to make the world a better place by producing good outcomes.

8. Mill: Generate more pleasure and less pain for everyone.

Applying ethical theories to everyday life is not easy, as we consider virtues, duties, and results:

. Virtue Ethics

9. Strengths: Respect for people, moral education, continuing progress.

9. Problems: No direct advice for specific situations, excuse for self-serving.

. Deontological Ethics

10. Strengths: Simple application of rules, avoid personal responsibility.

10. Problems: Rigidly strict, conflicting rules, sometimes bad consequences.

. Consequentialist Ethics

11. Strengths: Flexibility in circumstances, outcomes publicly discernible.

11. Problems: Hard to predict results accurately, especially over the long run.

Using all three is fine, but we need to think through how they cohere or diverge.

· 

Questions to Consider

To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.

As you think about applying ethical theory, consider addressing one of the following questions:

. Which of the three approaches to ethical theory makes the most sense, and why?

. When might Aristotle, Kant, and Mill disagree about how to handle a specific case?

. What theoretical approach are you most likely to employ in particular situations?

· 

Resources

Suggested Resources

The following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom.

Three Approaches

. Fieser, J. (n.d.). . Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/

1. Pages 1–15.

. Hinman, L. M. (2016). . Ethics Updates?. Retrieved from http://ethicsupdates.net/theories/index.shtml

2. Pages 1–2

Virtue Ethics

. Taylor, C. C. W. (2006). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

. Kemerling, G. (2011). . The Philosophy Pages. Available from http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2s.htm

4. Pages 1–3.

. Kraut, R. (2014, April 21). . The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics/

1/27/2020 Assessment 1 Instructions: Applying Ethical Theory – … Course Navigation  Tutorials Elliott Crozat Log Out Support  FACULTY Jamie Holub Roslyn Ellis 16  COACH Assessment 1 Instructions: Applying Ethical Theory Compose a 2-3 page paper in which you respond to a simulated medical ethics dilemma by applying the three normative theories of ethics. Introduction The field of ethics is highly personalized; each individual has his or her own view of actions that are morally and ethically sound. Rather than relying solely on personal experiences and emotions to govern ethical views, however, individuals often use ethical theories as a foundation. Ethical theories are useful in a variety of ways: To help people think through issues that arise in their everyday life. To make decisions, particularly those involving moral and ethical challenges. To justify decisions to others. To recognize types of arguments that other individuals use. You will learn about three traditions of normative ethics: Virtue ethics. Deontological ethics. Consequentialist ethics. These three traditions have contributed to our understanding about ethics through the works of key thinkers in history. Understanding these ethical theories will help you support your positions on ethical issues you encounter. In this assessment, you will apply ethical theory to a scenario that will be provided for you. Demonstration of Proficiency By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies through the following scoring guide criteria: Competency 1: Explain the nature of ethical issues. Explain the ethical issue in a scenario. Competency 2: Critically examine the contributions of key thinkers from the history of ethics. Apply the three traditional theories of normative ethics to a situation. Competency 3: Engage in ethical debate. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each of three approaches to ethical theory as they relate to a specific situation. Competency 4: Develop a position on a contemporary ethical issue. Apply ethical theory to justify an ethical position on an issue. Competency 5: Communicate effectively in the context of personal and professional moral discourse. Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of professional communities. https://courserooma.capella.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_232950_1&content_id=_8388566_1 1/2 1/27/2020 Assessment 1 Instructions: Applying Ethical Theory – … Overview You have now studied the three approaches to ethical theory (deontological, consequentialist, and virtue theory) as exemplified in the work of Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, and Aristotle. Your assessment is to write an essay applying these three approaches to the following practical case: You are called to consult in the critical care unit of your local hospital. The hospital admits JoEllen, 53, after she takes an overdose of prescription medications with alcohol. On admission, she says, “Not supposed to be here . . . ” and soon becomes uncommunicative. As her condition deteriorates rapidly, her son arrives with a notarized advance directive in which JoEllen specifically asks not to be placed on life support. What should you recommend to the attending health professionals? Instructions As you write your essay, consider how you would achieve the following: Explain the ethical issue in this scenario. Apply the three traditional theories of normative ethics to this situation. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the three theories as they relate to this situation. Apply ethical theory to justify your stance on the right thing to do in this situation. Your instructor may provide video feedback on your work, as well as complete the official scoring guide for the assessment. Additional Requirements Written communication: Ensure written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Format resources and citations according to current APA style guidelines. Number of resources: Use your judgment to ensure your topic is thoroughly researched. There is no minimum number of resources required. Length of paper: Submit 2–3 typed, double-spaced pages. Font and font size: Use Arial, 12-point font. SCORING GUIDE Use the scoring guide to understand how your assessment will be evaluated. VIEW SCORING GUIDE  https://courserooma.capella.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_232950_1&content_id=_8388566_1 2/2 1/27/2020 Applying Ethical Theory Scoring Guide Applying Ethical Theory Scoring Guide CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED Explain the ethical issue in a scenario. Does not explain the ethical issue in the scenario. Describes the ethical issue in the scenario. Explains the ethical Analyzes the ethical issue the issue the scenario. scenario. Apply the three traditional theories of normative ethics to a situation. Does not apply the three traditional theories of normative ethics to the situation. Applies traditional theories of normative ethics to the situation, with errors or omissions. Applies the three traditional theories of normative ethics to the situation. Analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the three theories as they relate to the situation. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each of three approaches to ethical theory as they relate to a specific situation. Does not describe the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to ethical theory. Describes advantages or disadvantages of each approach to ethical theory as they relate to a specific situation, but not both. Describes the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to ethical theory as they relate to a specific situation. Analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to ethical theory as they relate to a specific situation. Apply ethical theory Does not apply to justify an ethical ethical theory to position on an issue. justify your ethical position on this issue. Identifies an Applies ethical ethical position on theory to justify an this issue. ethical position on this issue. Justifies an ethical position on this issue, supported clearly by ethical theory. Communicate in manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for professional communities. Communicates inconsistently in a manner of scholarly and professional expectations for members of professional communities. Communicates in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of professional communities, with written communication that is free of errors that detract from the overall message. Does not communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, or consistent with expectations for members of professional communities. Communicates in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of professional communities. https://courserooma.capella.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/PHI-FPX/PHI-FPX2000/190400/Scoring_Guides/a01_scoring_guide.html 1/1

Applying Ethical Theory Scoring Guide
https://courserooma.capella.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/PHI-FPX/PHI-FPX2000/190400/Scoring_Guides/a01_scoring_guide.html 1/1
Applying Ethical Theory Scoring Guide
CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED
Explain the ethical
issue in a scenario.
Does not explain
the ethical issue in
the scenario.
Describes the
ethical issue in
the scenario.
Explains the ethical
issue the scenario.
Analyzes the ethical issue the
scenario.
Apply the three
traditional theories
of normative ethics
to a situation.
Does not apply the
three traditional
theories of
normative ethics to
the situation.
Applies traditional
theories of
normative ethics
to the situation,
with errors or
omissions.
Applies the three
traditional theories
of normative ethics
to the situation.
Analyzes the advantages and
disadvantages of the three
theories as they relate to the
situation.
Describe the
advantages and
disadvantages of
each of three
approaches to
ethical theory as
they relate to a
specific situation.
Does not describe
the advantages and
disadvantages of
each approach to
ethical theory.
Describes
advantages or
disadvantages of
each approach to
ethical theory as
they relate to a
specific situation,
but not both.
Describes the
advantages and
disadvantages of
each approach to
ethical theory as
they relate to a
specific situation.
Analyzes the advantages and
disadvantages of each approach
to ethical theory as they relate to
a specific situation.
Apply ethical theory
to justify an ethical
position on an issue.
Does not apply
ethical theory to
justify your ethical
position on this
issue.
Identifies an
ethical position on
this issue.
Applies ethical
theory to justify an
ethical position on
this issue.
Justifies an ethical position on
this issue, supported clearly by
ethical theory.
Communicate in
manner that is
scholarly,
professional, and
consistent with
expectations for
professional
communities.
Does not
communicate in a
manner that is
scholarly,
professional, or
consistent with
expectations for
members of
professional
communities.
Communicates
inconsistently in a
manner of
scholarly and
professional
expectations for
members of
professional
communities.
Communicates in a
manner that is
schol

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