Assignment: Mandatory And Discretionary

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Assignment: Mandatory And Discretionary

Assignment: Mandatory And Discretionary

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Within a budget there are two categories: mandatory and discretionary. In which categories do most public health programs fall? Provide an example of an expenditure that is considered mandatory. Justify your rationale. Provide an example of an expenditure that is discretionary. Justify your rationale.

Betty Neuman used Selye’s definition of stress in her Systems Model (Lawson, 2014). Sister Callista Roy also used concepts from Selye in the refinement of her Adaptation Model (Phillips & Harris, 2014).

Relationship of Theory to Professional Nursing Practice How will theory affect your nursing practice? Using a theoretical framework to guide your nursing practice assists you as you organize patient data, understand and analyze patient data, make decisions related to nursing interventions, plan patient care, predict outcomes of care, and evaluate patient outcomes (Alligood & Tomey, 2002). Why? The use of a theoretical framework provides a systematic and knowledgeable approach to nursing practice. The framework also becomes a tool that assists you to think critically as you plan and provide nursing care.

How do you begin? Now that you know why nursing theory is important to your nursing practice, it is time to identify a theoretical framework that fits you and your practice. Alligood (2006) presented guidelines for selecting a framework for theory- based nursing practice. Following are the steps:

1. Consider the values and beliefs in nursing that you truly hold. 2. Write a philosophy of nursing that clarifies your beliefs related to person,

environment, health, and nursing. 3. Survey definitions of person, environment, health, and nursing in nursing models. 4. Select two or three frameworks that best fit with your beliefs related to the

concepts of person, environment, health, and nursing. 5. Review the assumptions of the frameworks that you have selected. 6. Apply those frameworks in a selected area of nursing practice. 7. Compare the frameworks on client focus, nursing action, and client outcome. 8. Review the nursing literature written by persons who have used the frameworks. 9. Select a framework and develop its use in your nursing practice.


Think about the definitions of the metaparadigm concepts and the assumptions or propositions of each of the theories presented. Which of the theories most closely matches your beliefs?

Conclusion As demonstrated by the descriptions of the philosophies, conceptual models, and theories presented in this chapter, there is a wide variety of perspectives and frameworks from which to practice nursing. There is no one right or wrong answer. Various nursing theories represent different realities and address different aspects of nursing (Meleis, 2007). For this reason, the multiplicity of nursing theories presented in this chapter should not be viewed as competing theories but rather as complementary theories that can provide insight into different ways to describe, explain, and predict nursing concepts and/or prescribe nursing care. Curley (2007) describes this understanding in an interesting way by comparing the multiplicity of nursing theories to a collection of maps of the same region. Each map might display a different characteristic of the region, such as rainfall, topography, or air currents. Although all the maps are accurate, the best map for use depends on the information needed or the question being asked. This is precisely the case with the nurse’s choice of nursing theories for practice.

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