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D. Chinn, C. McCarthy / Patient Education and Counseling 90 (2013) 247–253252
which might underlie critical health literacy, namely ‘‘information appraisal’’ skills and ‘‘individual autonomy’’ regarding health care. This factor encompassed willingness to assert personal control over healthcare decisions and a positive view about the possibili- ties of individual contributions to community health outcomes, in line with aspects of Zimmerman’s concept of ‘‘psychological empowerment’’ .
The associations between scores on the subscales and various individual characteristics described above suggest that health providers should take care in making assumptions about the health literacy competencies of different community members. We did find an association between age, BME status and education level and difficulties with different aspects of health literacy, though these relationships were complex and not always in line with the more blanket assertions prompted by other research looking at these relationships which have used functional literacy assess- ment only [53,54].
Geriatric depression is a mental and emotional condition that affects senior citizens.
Sadness and occasional “blue” feelings are quite normal.
Long-term depression, on the other hand, is not a normal component of aging.
Subsyndromal depression is more prevalent in older persons.
This type of depression does not necessarily match all of the major depression criteria.
If left untreated, it can develop to serious depression.
Depression in older persons can have a negative impact on quality of life and raise the risk of suicide.
Continue reading to learn about the symptoms to look out for as well as treatment alternatives.
Geriatric depression can be caused by a variety of factors.
In every age group, there is no single cause of depression.
According to some research, the condition may have a genetic component.
In older individuals, however, biological, social, and psychological variables all play a role in depression.
According to research, the following factors may play a role in depression:
In the brain, there are low quantities of important neurotransmitter molecules (such as serotonin and norepinephrine)
a history of depression in the family
severe life situations, such as abuse or a loved one’s death
Depression in older persons may be exacerbated by aging-related complications.
These issues can include the following:
Isolation due to limited mobility and mortality
Financial difficulties when shifting from job to retirement
drug abuse for a long time
Friends and family members have died.
divorce or widowhood
long-term medical conditions
Geriatric depression symptoms
Depression has the same symptoms in people of all ages.
They may include the following:
sentiments of insignificance
spells of crying
inability to concentrate
issues with sleep
alterations in appetite
aches and pains in the body
Physical pain in older persons that is not explained by other medical disorders is frequently caused by depression.
Depression can be treated through online counseling.
BetterHelp’s professional therapists can help you improve your quality of life.
Get counseling over the phone, video, or chat whenever you need it.
Geriatric depression is diagnosed.
Geriatric depression can be difficult to diagnose.
For most elderly people, their regular doctor is their initial point of medical contact.
Care workers may notice depressive signs if they are in an assisted living facility.
Your symptoms, emotions, behavior, day-to-day activities, and family health history will be evaluated by a mental health professional.
How long have you been depressed? What caused your depression? Have you ever been depressed before?
To be diagnosed with depression, a person must experience symptoms for at least two weeks.
This free online geriatric depression scale can also be used.
It could be useful in deciding whether you or a loved one requires assistance.
This should not, however, be used in place of an official diagnosis from a certified mental health professional.
Geriatric depression treatment
There is no one-size-fits-all cure for depression, just as there is no one-size-fits-all cause.
It can take a long time to find the correct depression treatment.
Treatment usually consists of a combination of therapy, medication, and dietary adjustments.
The following medications are used to treat depression:
inhibitors of selective serotonin reuptake (SSRIs)
inhibitors of selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake (SNRIs)
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors tricyclic antidepressants (MAOIs)
The following are some of the lifestyle adjustments that are used to cure depression:
physical exercise should be increased
discovering a new pastime or interest seeing family and friends on a regular basis getting adequate sleep and eating a well-balanced diet
An elderly person suffering from depression can benefit from a variety of therapies.
Art therapy is a method of expressing your emotions in a creative way.
In psychotherapy, you speak with a qualified therapist in a private situation.
Geriatric depression is a condition that affects people as they age.
Geriatric depression can exacerbate the issues that come with becoming older.
It’s not always straightforward to diagnose, but the right treatment can improve your quality of life significantly.
If you’re worried that someone you care about is depressed, keep in mind that family and loved ones can have a significant impact on an elderly person’s care.
Encourage your loved one to seek treatment and provide support so that he or she can live a full and happy life.
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