Assignment: Discussion of the Cardiovascular System
The cardiovascular system is responsible for the transport of blood throughout the entire body; the main organ responsible is the heart which is supported by various vessels. The heart is a pump that “share several electrical and mechanical components” (Colledge, Walker & Ralston, 2010, p.524). It consists of four chambers, right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and the left ventricle, each of which has specific functions necessary for blood distribution. Hormones have their effects on the cardiovascular system; examples are the thyroid hormone and estrogen which produces thyroxine and the development of female sexual characteristics respectively. Conditions like hyperthyroidism which is the excess production of thyroxine and hypothyroidism which is the opposite present clinical manifestations based on their effect on the cardiovascular system (Klein & Ojamaa, 2001).Discussion of the Cardiovascular System
The increased production of thyroxine leads to an increase in heart rate by decreasing the systemic vascular resistance and increasing the blood volume (Klein & Ojamaa, 2001). Estrogen on the other has been found to have a protective effect on the cardiovascular system, probably because of its effect on serum lipid, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems (Mendelsohn & Karas,1999). Estrogen decreases the serum concentration of low-density lipoproteins and increases the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. It also regulates hepatic gene expression of coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins as well as decrease the plasma concentration of antifibrinolytic protein plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 (Mendelshon & Karas, 1999).
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, which is four-chambered and other supporting vessels; it is responsible for blood distribution throughout the body. It can be regulated as well as protected by hormones like thyroxine and estrogen. Hyperthyroidism is a condition that causes excess production of thyroxine and can lead to an increase in heart rate which hypothyroidism reduces the heart rate. Estrogen protects the heart through several means as well.Discussion of the Cardiovascular System
Colledge, N. R., Walker, B. R., & Ralston, S. H. (2010). Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. Illustrated by Robert Britton. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
Klein, I., & Ojamaa, K. (2001). Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system. New England Journal of Medicine, 344(7), 501-509.
Mendelsohn, M. E., & Karas, R. H. (1999). The protective effects of estrogen on the cardiovascular system. New England journal of medicine, 340(23), 1801-1811.Discussion of the Cardiovascular System