Assignment: Citizenship Behavior Aakanksha

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Assignment: Citizenship Behavior Aakanksha

Assignment: Citizenship Behavior Aakanksha

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Assignment: The Role of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Aakanksha Kataria1 Pooja Garg2 Renu Rastogi3

1Aakanksha Kataria, Research Scholar, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (IITR) Roorkee, India. 2Pooja Garg, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (IITR), Roorkee, India. 3Renu Rastogi, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (IITR), Roorkee, India.

ABSTRACT

In order to achieve and sustain organizational effectiveness, through employees’ increased contributions, organizations, apart from task proficiency, becoming increasingly reliant on employees’ discretionary efforts at workplace. To take part in their potent inclination, this paper intends to explore employee engagement and OCB literatures to investigate the interrelationships between employee engagement, OCB, and organizational effectiveness. A retrospective analysis is carried out of existing theoretical and empirical research studies to support the associative interrelationship between employee engagement, OCB, and organizational effectiveness. This integrative review subsequently considers two alternative models and propositions to establish causal relationships between employee engagement, OCB, and organizational effectiveness. Findings indicate that employee engagement has potential to drive OCB. Engaged employees also have the greatest potential to augment organizational effectiveness through their higher levels of OCB. This study suggests that value-based organizations through their HR architecture should adopt high performance HR practices to sustain high levels of employee engagement, since the psychological mechanism of engagement drives OCB by which an organization achieves effectiveness. Furthermore, this study mainly focuses on employees as engaged in their work roles, since these employees are highly capable of stimulating positive workplace behaviors and organizational performance. The study contributes to employee engagement and organizational effectiveness literatures by adding the notion of employee engagement as a significant antecedent of organizational effectiveness through OCB.

KEY WORDS: Employee Engagement, Organizational Effectiveness, Citizenship Behaviour.

JEL CLASSIFICATION: M24

1. INTRODUCTION Achieving organizational effectiveness is the ultimate purpose to be focused by any organization that takes enormous effort to maximize employees’ task efficiency, commitment, and sustain intrinsic motivation to perform well in difficult times. This is why recent efforts to improve organizational performance have begun to inculcate positive organizational concepts like optimism, trust, and engagement (Koyuncu et. al., 2006). As a matter of fact, among optimism, trust, and engagement, leaders and managers across the globe recognize employee engagement as one of the most vital element that affects organizational effectiveness (Welch, 2011).

The continuance of employee engagement goes beyond the traditional notions of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job involvement etc. Engagement involves the active use of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral energies at workplace while working in coherence with the organization’s objectives and strategies (Andrew & Sofian, 2011). Also, engaged employees being focused, energetic, and fully engrossed in their jobs are highly motivated to direct their focused energy towards organizational goals (Macey & Schneider, 2008; Barbera, & Young, 2009). Certainly, organizational performance and effectiveness is a function of the collaborative efforts of engaged employees (Bakker, 2011). Engaged employees experience greater attachment to their work and organization (Organ, 1994; Schaufeli & Bakker. 2004) and they are more likely to do things that augment organizational effectiveness (Saks, 2008). For instance, engaged employees are optimistic and spontaneous, they tend to exhibit positive attitudes and proactive behaviors at

work place (Schaufeli et al., 2002; Salanova & Schaufeli, 2008) including low absenteeism, helpful attitude towards co-workers and adherence to company rules etc., more popularly known as organizational citizenship behavior (Organ, 1988). Engaged employees bring enduring state of fulfilment at workplace while feeling intrinsically motivated to exhibit positive feelings such as sharing, assisting, cooperating, and supporting, and thus create a holistic framework of the positive psychological, social, and organizational context of work. In this regard, research studies in organizational sciences have recently begun to report a positive association between employee engagement and OCB (Bakker, Demerouti, & Verbeke, 2004; Christian et al., 2011; Schaufeli, Taris, & Bakker, 2006; Shimazu & Schaufeli, 2009).

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), a positive psychological approach of engaged employees towards work and organization is concerned with those informal duties and tasks that go beyond the set boundaries of one’s job (Organ, 1988). The presence of OCB has been advocated for the increased organizational effectiveness (Katz & Kahn, 1966; Organ, 1988; Podsakoff & Mackenzie, 1997). OCB has been observed to encompass those behaviors which lubricate the social machinery and construct the psychological fabric of an organization. Hence, OCB is widely considered both critical and beneficial to organizations (Wei et al., 2010). OCB literature has produced an impressive amount of substantive research on antecedents of OCB (Organ & Ryan, 1995; Podsakoff et al., 1996; Podsakoff et al., 2000). However, the constant evolution of the psychological process of employee engagement has lately begun to emerge as yet another important pathway for the evocation of OCB (Wei et al., 2010). This furthers the need

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