# Assignment: Chi-square statistic

Assignment: Chi-square statistic

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Assignment: Chi-square statistic
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0 out of 2 points

The chi-square statistic is often used in behavioral data to test for relationships between variables. This procedure is based on the null hypothesis of no association or independence. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding this analytic technique?

· Question 2

2 out of 2 points

Multiple logistic regression analysis applies when there is a single dichotomous outcome and more than one independent variable.

· Question 3

2 out of 2 points

For a two-tailed test using z values at the 5% significance level we reject H0:

· Question 4

0 out of 2 points

Which of the following measures is least affected by extreme or outlying values in a dataset?

· Question 5

0 out of 2 points

What is the first summary statistic for a continuous variable?

· Question 6

0 out of 2 points

The following are HDL levels measured in healthy females.  60        63        60        58        60        70        54        72        80        75      78      77   Calculate the range

· Question 7

2 out of 2 points

What is the median blood glucose level of the following data set collected from 8 individuals: 89, 95, 99, 102, 107, 108, 111, and 119?

· Question 8

0 out of 2 points

Which of the following types of bias is most commonly associated with a case-control study?

· Question 9

0 out of 2 points

A study is designed to evaluate the impact of a daily multivitamin on students’ academic performance. One hundred sixty students are randomly assigned to receive either the multivitamin or a placebo and are instructed to take the assigned drug daily for 20 days. On day 20, each student takes a standardized exam and the mean exam scores are compared between groups. This study is an example of a

· Question 10

0 out of 2 points

Which of the following is true about a positively skewed distribution of data?

· Question 11

0 out of 2 points

Which of the following types of mutation describes a point mutation?

Assignment: Chi-square statistic

· Question 12

2 out of 2 points

“Agent Orange” was used in Vietnam by the U.S. military as a:

· Question 13

2 out of 2 points

Health consequences of secondhand tobacco smoke have been persistently observed. There is biological plausibility of exposure to secondhand smoke causing adverse neurodevelopmental effects in children whose parents smoke. Which of the following statements is (are) accurate concerning the health effects of secondhand smoke?

· Question 14

2 out of 2 points

The first large-scale use of DDT occurred in Italy in 1943 when the insecticide was used for dusting refugees in a successful attempt to prevent an outbreak of a deadly disease spread by body lice which frequently occurs under wartime conditions of overcrowding and poor sanitation. What disease did DDT prevent in this situation?

· Question 15

2 out of 2 points

About ranges of tolerance for limiting factors, which of the following population groups is most sensitive to adverse environmental conditions?

· Question 16

2 out of 2 points

What is the most common type of genetic mutation in humans?

· Question 17

2 out of 2 points

Which waterborne disease that is caused by a protozoan present in the intestinal tract of both humans and wild animals may occur among campers in wilderness areas who unwittingly swallow pathogenic cysts when they drink unfiltered water from mountain streams?

· Question 18

0 out of 2 points

Long-term, low-level exposure electromagnetic fields may cause adverse health effects via “chronic” health impacts, or otherwise influence people’s wellbeing. Scientific knowledge about the health effects of electromagnetic fields is substantial and is based on a large number of epidemiological, animal, and in vitro studies. Many health outcomes have been examined. Which of the following health outcomes have been consistently linked with electromagnetic fields?

· Question 19

2 out of 2 points

Which of the following teratogens is associated with vaginal cancer in girls and genital cancer in boys?

· Question 20

0 out of 2 points

What does the term “hazard” refer to?

· Question 21

2 out of 2 points

A new screening test for Lyme disease is developed for use in the general population. The sensitivity and specificity of the new test are 65% and 75%, respectively. Four hundred people are screened at a clinic during the first year the new test is implemented. Assume the true prevalence of Lyme disease among clinic attendees is 15%. Calculate the predictive value of a positive test.

Assignment: Chi-square statistic

· Question 22

2 out of 2 points

A total of 850 insulation workers employed between 1940 and 1945 was identified from the personnel records of three large insulation manufacturing plants in the Midwestern U.S. in 1980. During the period 1940-1980, 28 deaths from lung cancer were discovered among the workers. Only eight lung cancer deaths, however, were reported among a comparable group of 800 coworkers who did not work with insulation during the same time period. The investigators had hypothesized that exposure to the insulation material increases the risk of lung cancer. Which epidemiology study design best represents this description?

· Question 23

2 out of 2 points

Which of the following measures of disease burden is determined from a screening test?

· Question 24

0 out of 2 points

An epidemiologic survey of skate board injuries in Caseville, a city with a population of 100,000 (population size at midpoint (mid-interval) of the year), had the following data for a given year: Number of skate boarders in Caseville during any given month                   9,000 Skate board injuries in Caseville                                                                       500 Total number of residents injured from skate boarding                                 1,200 Total number of deaths from skate boarding                                                      50 Total number of deaths from all causes                                                            900   The cause-specific mortality rate from skate boarding was:

· Question 25

2 out of 2 points

The major disadvantage of crude rates is that:

· Question 26

2 out of 2 points

A type of bias that occurs due to measurement error in assessment of both exposure and disease is:

· Question 27

2 out of 2 points

In a trial of a cytotoxic drug for lung cancer treatment, the investigators reported 6 deaths among 60 patients treated with this agent, compared with 15 deaths among 58 controls on placebo. Calculate the attributable benefit of this agent in reducing lung cancer-related mortality in this population.

· Question 28

2 out of 2 points

In a clinical trial, an important aspect of the study design often involves the subjects not being aware of their group assignment with regard to treatment or placebo; this technique is used to alleviate bias in study results and is known as:

Assignment: Chi-square statistic

· Question 29

2 out of 2 points

A new screening test for Lyme disease is developed for use in the general population. The sensitivity and specificity of the new test are 65% and 75%, respectively. Four hundred people are screened at a clinic during the first year the new test is implemented. Assume the true prevalence of Lyme disease among clinic attendees is 15%. Calculate the predictive value of a negative test.

· Question 30

2 out of 2 points

In a case-control study of osteoporosis, 150 women were enrolled as cases and an equal number as controls. Among the cases 50 reported low calcium intake, while only 20 of the controls reported low calcium intake. Calculate the odds ratio in the association between low calcium intake and developing osteoporosis in this population.

· Question 31

0 out of 2 points

All of the following are commonly used to address quality chasms in healthcare except:

· Question 32

0 out of 2 points

You are part of a state health department performance management team tasked to evaluate the effectiveness of local public health departments statewide. Which of the following planning tools are you most likely to use to guide your performance measurements?

· Question 33

0 out of 2 points

The first ancient people to implement widespread use of public health practices were the

· Question 34

0 out of 2 points

While some skills overlap, it is commonly agreed that leadership and management are distinct functions that require different skill sets. This is true in public health as well as in private industry. You are the director of a large voluntary health agency. Which one of the following activities are you likely to perform in your role as the leader of the organization? (Note: differentiate this activity from those normally performed by managers.)

· Question 35

2 out of 2 points

You are the recreation director at a large inner city. You notice a dramatic drop in attendance in a usually popular aerobics class shortly after hiring a new instructor. You interview the dropouts who inform you they don’t like the calisthenics-like exercise routines the new instructor, a former Marine Corps PT trainer, uses in the class. This is an example of what type of program evaluation?

· Question 36

0 out of 2 points

Public health infrastructure can be measured in part by:

· Question 37

0 out of 2 points

Which of the following national public health interventions for the primary prevention of tobacco use is likely to have the greatest effect?

· Question 38

2 out of 2 points

The Healthy People initiative was introduced in 1979 as a/an:

· Question 39

2 out of 2 points

In an attempt to increase diversity in your local public health department workforce you decide to obtain more information from candidates than merely their skills and experience. Which of the following questions can you legally ask in a face-to-face job interview when the information is not provided on the application?

· Question 40

2 out of 2 points

The FDA functions as the nation’s largest consumer protection agency. Among its activities, it investigates and regulates the efficacy and safety of:

Assignment: Chi-square statistic

· Question 41

2 out of 2 points

The United States spends significantly more on annual per capita health care costs than other industrialized countries but has only a mediocre life expectancy rate of its citizens. Which of the following statements best describes the implication of this finding?

Assignment: Chi-square statistic

· Question 42

2 out of 2 points

In the Genesis account of the fall, Eve decides to eat the fruit offered by the serpent after mentally rehearsing the benefits: “So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate, and she also gave some to her husband who was with her, and he ate” (Gen. 3:6). According to the PRECEDE Model, Eve was identifying __________ factors of her action.

· Question 43

2 out of 2 points

Which of the following statements is true about the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model?

· Question 44

0 out of 2 points

“Upstream” public health interventions are typically more effective than “downstream” ones in mitigating a health problem. All but one of the following are examples of “upstream” public health approaches. Which one is it?

Assignment: Chi-square statistic

· Question 45

2 out of 2 points

Sam wants to maintain a consistent practice of Bible study and prayer. He has tried doing regular devotions a few times, but just can’t seem to stay with them. He is now looking for study resources that might help in stay on track. Which stage of the Transtheoretical Model of Change is Sam in?

· Question 46

2 out of 2 points

An investigator is interested in a behavioral intervention that will increase self-efficacy in participants. In which of the following conditions will self-efficacy be an effective intervention tool in reducing risky behavior and maintaining healthful behavior?

· Question 47

2 out of 2 points

Which statement and its example is not true about self-efficacy as it relates to behavior change?

Assignment: Chi-square statistic

· Question 48

2 out of 2 points

As a health education specialist for a large national voluntary health agency, you are charged with promoting a new internet-based screening tool for breast cancer risk. It has already been beta tested and the research has been promising; now the agency wants to go public with it and encourage its use by the priority population of at risk women in America. Using diffusion theory as your guide, you choose to focus your initial promotional efforts on:

Assignment: Chi-square statistic

· Question 49

0 out of 2 points

Which part of a SMART objective is missing from the following learner outcome statement? Use the ABCDE model to guide your response. “By the end of the class on behavioral theory, students will accurately recall the stages of change in proper order, measured by a quiz.”

Assignment: Chi-square statistic

· Question 50

0 out of 2 points

Exam Which one of the following is not associated with the PROCEED stage of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model?

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