Legal Environment of Business

Legal Environment of Business – BUL4310 Syllabus, Spring 2021 © Robert W. Emerson, Jan. 10, 2021

Warning: This Syllabus is neither a contract nor an offer, and the professor may alter it at any time (usually with an updated date, above, in the copyright notice). Be sure to check the course website to verify you have the most current syllabus.

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Professor: Robert W. Emerson, J.D. Some of my articles are on the Social Science Research Network at

Prof’s Email: Email this or the ta address below; do not use the Canvas email system Phone Number (cell) – 352-262-8536 Email is the preferred method of communication. However, do call if it is an emergency situation requiring immediate action, especially if – having tried email – there was not a timely response. Other Email: Sometimes the TAs answer, and sometimes the Prof does. Do NOT write to this email if you write to

The Dept. Chair is Prof. Mo Wang. The TAs are 2nd or 3rd year students at UF’s Levin School of Law. Many excellent, former BUL4310 students are Undergrad Assistants for BUL 4310.

CRITICAL DATES AND TIMES Start of Semester Mon., Jan 11 Optional Term Paper Outline* Due Thurs., Jan. 28 (you can turn it in earlier!) Exam #1 Thurs., Feb. 18, starting at 7:00 pm Optional Term Paper – the actual Paper* Due Thurs., March 11 (you can turn it in earlier!) Exam #2 Thurs., March 25, starting at 7:00 pm Extra Credit (either or both projects)* Due Wed., April 7 (you can turn it in earlier!) Last Day of Class Wed., April 21 Final Exam Wed., April 28, starting at 5:30 pm * Submitted in the Assignments folder on the course website.

WARNING: Late transmission of work is unacceptable. DO NOT assume you can successfully turn something in near the end of the day – that no glitches will prevent your submitting it. Also, if you turn in the “wrong” work (e.g., an earlier draft), that counts as your submission. Be sure to submit the correct version! I try to be very helpful, but I cannot give course work extensions or more credit opportunities to a student if doing so would be unfair to other students (for whom that is not also offered).

Table of Contents for this Syllabus Office Hours, Assurance of Learning, Email, Accommodations, Announcements 1-3 Discussion Boards, Testing Information, Online Proctoring 3-4 Books, Videos, Recorded Live Lectures, Topical Talks, Canvas 4-6 Structure of Course, A Schedule, Readings 6-9 Preparing before Watching Class, Studying for Exams 9 A Term Paper Option 9-11 Extra Credit 11-13 Appeals of Grades for Term Paper or Extra Credit 13 Calculating Your Grade 13-15 About the TAs, and About Your Professor 15-16

ZOOM OFFICE HOURS Prof. Emerson: Tues.: 10:30 – 11:00 am & Thurs. 2:00-2:30 pm. No lecturing, here! If students show up and ask questions pertinent to the class as a whole, I will post a recording. Most office hours do end up recorded, and I usually give a brief description with the posting, including time markers. Undergrad Assistants: by Zoom, noon to 1 pm & 3 to 4 pm Mon-Friday – These are not typically recorded.

Special Undergrad Office Events: (1) on Thurs., Jan. 21 (“Success in BUL 4310,” incl. “So You Want to Write a Term Paper?”); (2) on Mon., Feb. 8 (“Prep for the First Test”), (3) on Wed., March 3 (“Term Paper Discussion”) (4) on Tues., March 16 (“Prep for the Second Test”), (5) on Wed., March 31 (Writing One or Both Extra Credit Paper”) (6) on Thurs., April 22 (“Prep for the Final Exam”).

A Recording (likely, Zoom) and/or a detailed outline of all that was covered will be posted.

Spring 2021 BUL4310 Syllabus- Robert Emerson

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In the UF Course Catalogue: BUL 4310 The Legal Environment of Business: “Introduces the legal environment of business and organizations. Emphasizes public and regulatory law and the social, political and ethical aspects of legal issues in business. Subjects include the nature of law and legal process; . . . the constitution; statutory and common law; contracts and torts; business organizations . . . , employment law [and many other subjects].” ASSURANCE OF LEARNING Each program at the Warrington College of Business has developed goals and objectives that express valued skills and knowledge that students should be able to demonstrate upon completing that program. The following goals and objectives specifically apply to BUL4310: Goal 1: Demonstrate competency in and across business disciplines. 1A. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of elements of . . . business law…. Goal 2: Appreciate the ethical and legal aspects of business. 2A. Define and explain legal, ethical, and social responsibilities of organizations. 2B. Identify relevant ethical and social issues, particularly those not obvious to complex business decisions.

General Course Goals Your hard work in this course will make you knowledgeable about some essential legal concepts, such as contracts and torts. More specifically, through this course, you will: 1. Be able to recognize and apply basic principles of law to various problems which businesses, entrepreneurs, and operations professionals may face. 2. Consider ethical and philosophical constructs in the legal and business environment. 3. Distinguish between legal systems in the United States and elsewhere in the world. 4. Recognize fundamental issues of international and comparative law. 5. Evaluate the roles and activities of lawyers. 6. Recognize the formation, dissolution, and contractual or tort liability of agency relationships. 7. Identify the major forms of business organization and the advantages and disadvantages of each. 8. Know the process for forming corporations and some essential corporate law concepts. 9. Distinguish the roles of shareholders, directors, and officers. 10. Understand legal and ethical considerations in corporate governance. 11. Be able to identify, analyze and evaluate the elements of a contract. 12. Know what to look for involving contract issues, such as what binds/discharges parties to a contract. 13. Recognize some basic constitutional doctrines, especially due process and free speech issues. 14. Know the main issues/principles associated with employment discrimination claims or related issues. 15. Know the essential concepts of intellectual property. 16. Evaluate the roles and activities of judges and juries, including how courts function. 17. Explain how lawsuits proceed; prepare a plan to bring or respond to a lawsuit. 18. Understand fundamental elements of criminal law and torts, including defenses. 19. Identify basic, practical concepts of law in risk management and proactive business planning. By the end of the semester, you will have a good grasp of many basic legal principles; you will have gone beyond just memorizing or recognizing some facts and theories. Indeed, this course will enable you to better understand current events in law and the business world and will provide a solid framework for any subsequent courses you may take in law or business.

Use Email to Contact Prof. Emerson and the TAs

Please use email. Only use other means (e.g., calling my cellphone – 352-262-8536) if you have no email access, it is an emergency, and/or you need an immediate response. I check email often and normally reply to it quicker than other means of contact. For any problem, whether about dates, classes, assignments, exams, or other matters, the sooner you contact us, the better. Especially for emergencies, don’t hesitate to call me.

WHERE SHOULD YOU SEND EMAILS? – questions about grades, exams, term papers, and administrative concerns – e.g., any scheduling issues related to exams, papers, or any other matter.

Spring 2021 BUL4310 Syllabus- Robert Emerson

Page 3 of 16 – substantive questions about lectures and readings; also, after 48 hours without a response, or in an “emergency” situation, you may forward to me any message you sent to the TAs.

Do not use the course website’s mail system (Canvas) unless you cannot send email (e.g., via Outlook) to the above addresses. Do NOT send an email to both e-mail accounts above (TA or prof) about the same matter. In every email, please state your name, UFID, and phone number. Please also include all relevant prior correspondence.

Problems with accessing lectures or other technical issues should be directed to the Technology Assistance Center (TAC), 352.273.0248, Certainly you may copy me on any correspondence.

SPECIAL ACCOMMODATIONS: Students requesting classroom accommodations must first register with the Dean of Students Office. The Dean of Students Office will provide documentation to the student, who must make sure that this documentation is provided to the professor.

ANNOUNCEMENTS DURING THE SEMESTER Important announcements are posted on the website (and perhaps also sent to your email address). It is critical that you frequently check the announcements page on the website and your Gatorlink email account throughout the semester. Your failure to report a missing grade or to otherwise make an inquiry shortly after grades are posted is foolish behavior! And there may be other consequences; to be fair to other students, I cannot relieve you of responsibility for failing to read and take note of Announcements. DISCUSSION BOARDS Besides the class lectures and office hours, there are discussion board “threads” and there is always email. You have multiple avenues to ask questions and discuss anything. In fact, besides just watching lectures and reading on your own, this class, although large, offers students many opportunities to engage in participatory learning. This is a great place to put substantive questions about the course material or the exams. Students, TAs, and your professor are thus all available to furnish insights.

TESTING INFORMATION All three exams (including the final exam) are non-cumulative, open-book, open-note, and

cover not just the readings (page 6, below), but also lectures. You can bring anything in paper (e.g., besides your course books and notes, also a foreign language-English dictionary or even just a regular dictionary). Do not expect to be able to use any digital documents. You will not be allowed to access the internet while taking the exams. The safe thing to do is have printed copies of anything you wish to access during the test. The key things to have are the two required books, printouts of anything from the course website you find helpful (perhaps the Practice Questions or the Supplemental Information text), and your notes.

Exams consist of 40 Multiple Choice questions worth 2.5 points each, for a total of 100 points. Only for exceptional reasons will make-up exams be provided. If at all possible, contact us via

email at least one week before a scheduled exam, or as soon as you practically can, if you must take the exam on an alternate date or time (e.g., because of a wedding or a funeral). Exam make-ups are not guaranteed. In those exceptional cases when a make-up is granted, please note: To maintain consistency with and fairness to the entire class, it is my policy to not give a make-up more than three days before or after the exam’s scheduled date. If you are considering taking this class one semester with one or more make-up exams, or during another semester when you can take all three exams at the scheduled date and time, choose the latter semester. And if you miss a scheduled exam, you must have an exceptional reason for your missing it.

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To maintain high standards of academic integrity and ensure that the value of your University of Florida degree is not compromised, exams are administered through HonorLock and written submissions are reviewed via


Make sure your time is correct, given the time zone in which you take your tests. If you arrive at the exam late, you very likely will not get the full two hours to complete the exam; indeed, you may simply not be able to take the exam at all (and therefore receive a zero on the exam).

In serious situations (e.g., loss of time for taking the exam), you or a representative for you should contact me immediately, even during the exam if possible. FAILURE TO DO THAT – TO CONTACT ME WHILE THE TEST IS OCCURRING – MAKES IT IMPOSSIBLE FOR ME TO EXTEND THE TIME ON YOUR TEST AND THUS MAKE UP FOR ANY MISSING TIME. DO NOT SHOW UP LATE FOR EXAMS OR OTHERWISE NOT FOLLOW THE PROTOCOL AND EXPECT ME TO MAKE IT UP TO YOU.1

ONLINE PROCTORING AT WARRINGTON The University of Florida requires that any assessment equivalent to 15% or more of a student’s final

course grade must be proctored. This policy protects both the value of your academic degree and your own time and effort in becoming a successful Warrington student. Please expect all assessments to be proctored and all assignments to utilize plagiarism software, and prepare accordingly.

For online proctored exams, you are expected to have: • integrity to abide by all exam instructions and report any irresponsible peers •. Google Chrome •. a working webcam and computer (restart your computer before your exam for the most effective testing

environment) * a downloaded extension to your Chrome browser (HonorLock). •. a private workspace (if this is unachievable, contact your professor) •. incredible attentiveness to following exam instructions (e.g., so you don’t somehow get flagged for “cheating”) •. diligence to notify your faculty of accommodations or extenuating circumstances that affect your exam

time or exam environment at the beginning of the term (at the very least, one week before your exam); if there is a problem during the exam, the sooner I (Prof. Emerson) know of it – even during the exam, such as due to lost time – the better that is.

The Warrington College of Business is strongly committed to academic integrity and will rigorously enforce violations of the UF Honor Code and/or additional Warrington academic integrity policies. To be a successful student please read all instructions for any assignment carefully, do not collaborate on individual exams, assignments, or homework, and review the following best practices to be prepared.

HonorLock Student Guide: HonorLock Student Best Practices:

BOOKS (BUL 4310 has been awarded the Affordable UF badge “as a symbol of the Professor’s commitment of affordable education” – total book costs are below $20 per credit hour)

There are two required books for the course:

(1) Business Law (Barron’s, 6th ed., Nov. 1, 2015) – ISBN No. 978-1-4380-0511-9 (a brown cover) (available at various campus stores and online – Amazon, etc.)

(2) Law, Society and Business (“LSB”) (Target Copy 2021) – ISBN No. 978-1-953166-03-6 (light purple cover) (352) 376-3826) – As an alternative, PDF documents are available of this book on the course website. You should just print it out for use on exams.

1 A recurring theme of this class is “Rule of Law.” The term encompasses concepts such as fair and equal treatment of all persons, high or low; there should be neither favoritism nor prejudice, as that is “law” based on who is being judged and on who is enforcing the rules, not based on the principles encompassed in the rules, applied evenly toward all. So, in trying to be fair to all I consider how promptly an individual student acted, how much he/she followed instructions and even common sense, and – most important – would my generosity to that student be, given a fair reading of the situation, justifiable with respect to other students (for whom this opportunity is not being afforded).

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You can use any other books, including on the tests, but you should definitely have those two books, listed above. Using earlier editions of the required books, instead of the current ones (2015 for the Barron’s book; 2021 for the LSB), is a very poor decision. Some material in the older books is outdated, things have been added to and moved into the current books, and material has been shifted greatly from one chapter or section to another. Also, the numerous page references in the lectures, the PowerPoint, the Supplemental Information Texts, and the Practice Exams are all to the pages in the current books, not prior versions.

Information about Royalties: No royalties or any other remuneration are earned for the texts (the Barron’s book or LSB) except, per University rules, for initial sales of the Barron’s book, with a new retail price of about $18.95 (cheaper copies can be obtained for used or perhaps even new books). Only for those retail sales of a new book is any royalty given – at most, about $1.50 per book. (Of course, no royalties are earned on rentals of books or on sales of used books.) If you run the numbers – the hundreds of hours that go into producing a quality revision of a text – you can see that I do not write the Barron’s book for the money (although over 90% of sales are NOT to UF students). Writing and revising (updating) texts is, actually, a labor of love. I enjoy it and learn from it, as the process reinforces and improves my understanding of the law. This makes me a better professor, both as a researcher and a teacher.

VIDEOS (basically just for optional fun, or if you find them useful to understanding concepts) Emerson – (69 videos), and (17 videos)



1) the Class Lectures (CL) (About 50 altogether, not including my reviews before each exam). The CL can be viewed in Canvas, via the course website, where you click either

“Lecture Videos (streaming)” or “Lecture Videos (downloading).” Then make sure that you have logged in, such as to Mediasite (i.e., don’t be just a “Guest”). Only 50 lecture choices can show at a time; so if you only see the choices from CL 7 to 56, then click on the arrow that allows you to show the lectures from 1 to 50. CL 1 is the first one for this semester, Lecture 2 is the second one for this semester, and so forth.


2) the Topical Talks (which are generally much shorter than a typical class). To have some class time answering questions (both on and off topic), and to allow for review sessions before each exam, I recorded, over the past several semesters, some comparatively short topical talks.

TEST 1 Topical Talks(eleven): TOTAL time – 4 hrs., 23 mins., 14 secs.

TEST 2 Topical Talks (nine): TOTAL time – 3 hrs., 43 mins., 25 secs.

FINAL EXAM Topical Talks (twelve): TOTAL time – 4 hrs., 45 mins., 13 sec

The Topical Talks can be accessed on the front page of the course website – click on the “Topical Lectures” heading, or just go straight to:

For each Topical Talk (TT), the LSB specifically indicates those lectures’ coverage (noting when a specific TT starts and when it ends).2

BUL4310 via Canvas – Some information and Rules

2 Also, the RLL and the Supplemental Information texts (one for each Part of the course) sometimes refer to TL coverage. The reverse is not true: The Topical Talks do not contain references to the current LSB pages or to the Supplemental Information texts.

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Frequent use of the course website is fundamental, as students can access announcements, exam information, lecture recordings, their grades, and other data. Your name is not automatically indicated when you start a discussion thread. So write your name on posts. Chat sessions can be accessed at any time, including during TAs’ online office hours. Discussion Boards frequently contain discussions of the course material, with student questions and my responses. I can access statistics indicating student authoring or reading of postings. Any student posting that is frivolous, rude, vulgar, inappropriate, commercial in nature, or irrelevant for the class as a whole will be removed. Also, messages may be erased if they are no longer pertinent. WARNING: All lectures are your Professor’s property. They shall not be used for any commercial purpose. Violation subjects you to various penalties, including termination of all Gatorlink privileges, per UF rules. Your access to the lectures and the website cannot be transferred to anyone else who may use that access for a commercial purpose – e.g., drafting and selling notes.

THE STRUCTURE OF THE COURSE You should read ahead in the LSB and the Supplemental Information text before watching lectures.

For estimates of how far ahead to read before class, see “PREPARING BEFORE CLASS,” below. ALSO, WE MAY, FOR YOUR BENEFIT, PREPARE A SUGGESTED SCHEDULE, one for each of the three parts of the course (for preparing for each of the three exams).

The Barron’s book is more for background; while the lectures track the LSB and the Supplemental Information text, they do not generally do so for specific Barron’s pages. To assist your readings, the LSB frequently cross-references pages from the Barron’s book. The idea is that reading those Barron’s book pages should give you more information about those concepts discussed in the LSB.3

The course is split into three parts, with one exam for each part. Every part has several topics, with some topics taking much more time (in terms of lectures and readings) than other topics. Tests tend to cover subjects proportionate to how much the material is covered in the books and lectures (both CL & TT).

Here are the READINGS

Part 1: Legal Systems & Business Formation

Recorded Live Lectures (about 22 of them) & 11 Topical Talks

LSB Article I (pages 1-178)

Barron’s: Five Chapters (Chs. 1 & 14-17), and these pages – Chapter 2’s pp. 25-34 & 36-47 (all but First Amendment and Eminent Domain, covered for test two), Chapter 3’s pp. 83- 86 (Inquis. Approach through case citation), and Chapter 28’s p. 637 (common law, Civil Law)

Supp. Info. Text 1

Topics: Law & Legal Systems; Lawyers; Agency; Establishing a Business; Corporations

Part 2: Contracts, Speech & Employment

Recorded Live Lectures (about 16 of them) & 9 Topical Talks

LSB Article II (pages 179-390)

Barron’s: Six Chapters (Chs. 4-9), and these pages – Chapter 2’s pp. 34-36 (First Amdmt.; eminent domain), Chapter 24’s pp. 573-90 (anti- discrim. law), and Chapter 28’s p. 638 (culture) & p. 642 (para. on CISG)

Supp. Info. Text 2

Topics: Contracts; Free Speech; Employm’t Discrim.

Part 3: Rights & Wrongs

Recorded Live Lectures (about 12 of them) & 12 Topical Talks

LSB Article III (pages 391-607)

Barron’s: Two Chapters (Chs. 19 & 26), and these pages – Chapter 3’s pp. 49-53 (court structure) & pp. 59-82 (taking cases to court; out-of-court process) & pp. 86-90 (Q&A), Chapter 18’s pp. 433-34 (accountants & lawyers) & pp. 541-42 (Robinson-Patman Act), and Chapter 28’s p. 644 (Int’l Dispute Resolution)

Supp. Info. Text 3

Topics: Intell. Property; Judges; Litigation; Alternative Dispute Resolution; Crimes, Torts & Warranties

3 For more information on the class days, review sessions and topical talks, see pages 1-5, above.

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LSB Readings before Class Lectures (CL) and Topical Talks (TT), in Order4 (Barron’s pages should be self-evident and indicated in Table of Contents or Index), and are cross-referenced in the LSB). LSB pages to read before watching the TT are indicated below. LSB pages to read before watching that CL are estimates (if anything, we likely will not get to the end pages listed below and thus will pick up in the next lecture where I was in the LSB at the end of the last lecture. It is always safer to read at least 20 pages in the LSB beyond where we have gotten, so far, in CL. Of course, if we get to the end point of where you have read, you can, and should, just pause your viewing of the class and just read ahead before resuming your watching. Surely that will improve your comprehension and your note-taking.

Approximate Pages for the First Part of the Course (and thus the First Exam) – (these likely will be adjusted as class proceeds5) CL 1 (Jan. 11) – LSB 1-5 & 12-14, 1st Part Supp. Info. Text Item 1 TT 1-1 Law and Ethics (time – 28:27) – LSB 5-12 CL 2 (Jan. 11) – LSB 14-18 CL 3 (Jan. 13) – LSB 18-20 TT 1-2 Sources and Classifications of Law (time – 28:28) – LSB 21-28 CL 4 (Jan. 13) – LSB 28-35 CL 5 (Jan. 20) – LSB 36-44 CL 6 (Jan. 20) – LSB 44-50 MAKEUP RECORDED LECTURES (“catching up”)6 TT 1-3 Legal Fees (time – 21:57) – LSB 50-55 CL 7 (Jan. 25) – LSB 55-65 & TT 1-4 Lawyers and their Roles (time – 38:10) – LSB 55-72 TT 1-5 Attorney-Client Privilege (time – 27:29) – LSB 72-80 CL 8 (Jan. 25) – LSB 80-91 CL 9 (Jan. 27) – LSB 91-98 CL 10 (Jan. 27) – LSB 98-100 TT 1-6 The Inquisitorial Process (time – 25:09) – LSB 100-102 CL 11 (Feb. 1) – LSB 102-104 CL 12 (Feb. 1) – LSB 104-110 CL 13 (Feb. 3) – LSB 110-120 & 1st Part Supp. Info. Text Item 2 CL 14 (Feb. 3) – LSB 120-131 CL 15 (Feb. 8) – LSB 131-137 TT 1-7 Partnerships (time – 7:10) – LSB 137-144 CL 16 (Feb. 8) – LSB 144-150 CL 17 (Feb. 10) – LSB 150-153 TT 1-8 Corp. Law/Delaware (time – 17:55) – LSB 153-157 CL 18 (Feb. 10) – LSB 157-164 CL 19 (Feb. 15) – LSB 164-167 TT 1-9 Directors & Boards, incl. Corp. Oppor. Doctrine (time – 16:44) – LSB 168-173 CL 20 (Feb. 15) – LSB 173-175 TT 1-10 Piercing Corporate Veil (time – 19:44) – LSB 175-178 TT 1-11 Ultra Vires (time – 14:01) – LSB 178

4 Combined, the lectures and topical talks (TT) cover the entirety of the LSB material generally, but not – of course – every paragraph, sentence, or footnote! The LSB page indications are approximate. It can never hurt to read beyond those pages, as we will certainly be getting to that material in a later lecture if we do not reach it in the lecture you are viewing. Moreover, all LSB reading, even if not discussed in a lecture, is reading you should undertake both for learning and possible testing. 5 I would repost this syllabus, with a new date on it and with these page numbers updated. 6 Any time for such “makeup” classes, to catch up to the course coverage to complete what needs to be covered by Feb. 15, as Test One is on Feb. 18, will be ceded back to the class later in the semester (reciprocal cancelled classes, such as for Feb. 17). As this becomes clearer, the syllabus will be adjusted. * Contracts classes are from 2020, with a live class, and will be the lectures for the contracts coverage this semester. For each of these lectures I simply designate the class as being Feb. 19, as that is the first day after Test One and thus the start of the Second Part of the Course. All such contracts classes will be dropped and available at once.

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For the Second Part of the Course (and thus the Second Exam) CL 21 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 179-183 TT 2-1 Contract Formation (OACMCL) (time – 27:36) – LSB 185-188 TT 2-2 Objective Theory of Contracts (time – 22:44) – LSB 189-195 CL 22 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 183-185 & 191-192 & 195-208 CL 23 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 202-223 CL 24 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 223-230 CL 25 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 228-240, 2nd Part Supp. Info. Text Item 1 CL 26 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 240-247 & 257-258

TT 2-3 Fraud (time – 36:08) – LSB 253-261 CL 27 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 246-262

TT 2-4 Infancy (time – 22:18) – LSB 266-273 CL 28 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 263-278, 2nd Part Supp. Info. Text Item 2 CL 29 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 279-289 CL 30 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 290-323, 2nd Part Supp. Info. Text Items 3-4 TT 2-5 Statute of Frauds (time – 36:52) – LSB 292-299 TT 2-6 Parol Evidence Rule (time – 10:48) – LSB 299-302 TT 2-7 Contract Conditions, Performance, and Breach (time – 28:22) – LSB 307-320 CL 31 (Feb. 19*) – LSB 324-338, 2nd Part Supp. Info. Text Item 5 CL 32 (March 1) – LSB 339-345 CL 33 (March 1) – LSB 346-354, 2nd Part Supp. Info. Text Item 6

TT 2-8 Employment at Will (time – 22:09) – LSB 355-361 CL 34 (March 3) – LSB 361-368 CL 42 (March 3) – LSB 368-380 CL 43 (March 8) – LSB 380-389 TT 2-9 Americans with Disabilities Act (time – 16:28) – LSB 389-392

For the Third Part of the Course (and thus the Final Exam)

(12 course lectures, plus 12 Topical Talks, to be detailed in the syllabus as we near the Third Part of the Course)

There are two LINKs on the front page of the Course Website at “Start Here.”

 Preparing Before Watching Class

 Studying for Exams ———————————— * Contracts classes are from 2020, with a live class, and will be the lectures for the contracts coverage this semester. For each of these lectures I simply designate the class as being Feb. 19, as that is the first day after Test One and thus the start of the Second Part of the Course. All such contracts classes will be posted onto the website and made available at once, on or before February 19.

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A term paper score can substitute for your lowest exam score. (Note: No matter how good your score is, it only replaces the lowest test score and is worth 20% of your grade (nothing more than 20%). Choosing to do a term paper is entirely optional; indeed, most students do not choose to write a paper.

The Outline

WARNING: You Must Act Quickly, or You Cannot Write a Paper for Credit To be eligible, a student must first submit an outline by Thurs., Jan. 28. That outline must be approximately 150 to 250 words long, with an indication of at least three sources (e.g., Internet sites, books, court cases, newspaper stories) you have found and may use. The outline is not graded, but we usually acknowledge its receipt and often also write to the submitting student with advice on how to approach his/her paper and/or with a request that he/she revise his/her outline.

You cannot wait to see how you are doing on exams before deciding whether to turn in an outline.7 There will be no extension of the Thurs., Jan. 28 date for turning in an outline and reserving a spot.

Also, the permission to write a term paper that arises from timely submission of an outline only extends to a paper that at least resembles the outline. You can certainly change the emphasis of a paper, as long as it relates to the outline’s scope. However, if you decide to change the topic dramatically (e.g., to an entirely different topic), you must email to me explaining what you wish to do and seek permission by sending a new outline. Such an action will NOT extend the deadline for turning in a term paper. And such a request (an email) must be emailed to me NO LATER than ten days before the paper is due. If in doubt about these matters, email me.

One approach (BUT NOT THE ONLY APPROACH) is to write a paper arising from, relating to, delving deeper into, or otherwise concerning a real case or actual example discussed in the LSB text, in the Barron’s book, or in one or more of the class-related YouTube videos. Generally, it would be much better to choose a case or example that was not discussed at great length (e.g., for more than one or two paragraphs), because that gives more opportunity for you to do your own research and develop your own insights. This is not the only approach. Generally, any law topic that is business related (very broadly defined) is acceptable. Do not write about abortion, about any subject that is more pertinent to another course than to a law course, about a matter where you are focusing on a case or an event from earlier than 2010, or about a criminal law matter not related to business.

An outline for the term paper is turned in via the Assignments of the course website. We will review outlines and get back to you. If there is a problem, you will have time to resubmit a revised outline. The most common problems are that the topic is too broad or that there are insufficient sources. In the papers themselves, a common failing, among other things, is the absence of sources for various statements which are not yours (that you got from somewhere but have not cited). Put in footnotes one or more sources for every statement that you make which should require documentation (that is not simply your own thought). It is okay for an outline to be bullet pointed and not set up like a rough draft (as in the examples on Canvas). But the bullet points need to say something, not just be headings. Therefore, the better approach is usually just to submit a paragraph or two (as much as a page) stating what you intend to do and including some sources.

The Paper

7 If, based on your first test score or other circumstances, you decide to NOT turn in a paper for which you submitted an outline, that is okay (there is no penalty for that). However, past students would very likely tell you that the safest approach is to complete and submit the paper.

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The completed paper should be from 2,200 to 2,800 words, with that total not counting the citations, the footnoted materials, or any bibliography or title page. While writing more than 2,800 words will NOT lead to a penalty (you won’t be rewarded either!), writing less than 2,200 words likely will be penalized.8

The paper, assuming that you have completed an outline on time (on or before Thurs., Jan. 28), is due Thurs., March 11. The paper submitted should be in Microsoft Word.

NOTE: You do NOT start out with a perfect score on a paper that you submit (100 points); so we do not have to explain why you did not get a 100. You must earn the points – typical scores range from about 80 to the mid 90s, but there are lower scores and even higher scores. At least two persons will grade your paper.9

The rubric used includes these assessments of your work, which are stated here just as a reminder of things to consider (not overlook) while writing your paper, not as a guarantee of any particular point total.10

A well-stated thesis – understandable? What is the author (the student) trying to do? 5 pts.

Analysis of Topic – 40 pts.

Clarity of Paper – 10 pts.

Strong Conclusion? (Has the author attempted to prove anything? IF so, given the brevity of the paper, has he/she been successful) – 10 pts.

Writing, Spelling, Punctuation – 20 pts.

You will receive fewer points on your paper for grammatical mistakes, especially ones that I specifically advise against.

Sources – Quality and Number (the author should cite at least nine different sources, unless there is an understandable reason – the sources should be of different types, and most should be recent in origin whenever practical and appropriate for the paper) – 15 pts.

Again, the most important thing is to write a very good paper that is your work. But the above standards may give you some idea of what you should do.

There are three LINKS on the front page of the Course Website at “Start Here.”

 Documenting Legal Research  Some Writing Tips: PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION IF YOU ARE WRITING SOMETHING FOR BUL 4310!  Library Resources

Law sources for your paper can be found from many avenues – FindLaw, Justia, Cornell Law School digital library, Lexis-Nexis (this one is available in the digital databases for the UF Libraries) and many others. The term paper gives you much flexibility to write on almost anything related to business law.

UF’s Teaching Center has a writing studio that provides assistance. The URL is studio/. Or see

Also, (the College’s Career & Academic Peer (CAP) Mentor program sometimes helps students with written work, especially professional writing, such as personal statements and cover letters.

Turning It In and Monitoring the Grading

The outline and the paper must be submitted electronically via the Internet. Submission instructions are on the website – in the Assessments folder. The outline and the paper will NOT be accepted through email, via fax, or by printed copy. Please do not wait until the last minute to try to submit an outline or paper. (As a

8 The farther you fall short of the minimum word count, the lower the score you are likely to receive.

9 Just because Canvas may display the grade from one grader does not mean another person or persons also graded the paper and contributed to the ultimate grade and any comments. Canvas limits how things may be posted.

10 For example, if you fail to meet the minimal word count for the paper, you likely will have a lower score on your paper.

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last resort, you may send the outline or paper as an attachment to my e-mail address – – but that would only be to show you had completed the work as of that time. You still must follow up with an Internet submission.) Please keep a copy of the paper, and retain the confirmation notice generated after you submit the paper. We generally grade the papers within about three to four weeks, with grades and commentary ultimately placed in the Assessment folder where you also access your exam grades. Please monitor announcements – both on the website and in class – as any concerns about your outline or paper should be promptly sent to the TAs or me. If you turn in an outline but do not write a paper, you receive no credit for your efforts. You are not penalized for having failed to turn in a paper, but you also get nothing for whatever work you put into the outline or the draft of your paper.

The Grading of the Paper As stated above, the outline is not graded. Only the term paper is graded. My expectation is that most persons undertaking this assignment will do a good or very good job, and I will give out most grades in the low-B to mid-A range. The emphasis in grading will be on the research and the substance of the paper. However, poor grammar, bad spelling, incoherent sentences, and other problems of “style” will lead to a lower grade. Furthermore, reliance on only a few sources (inadequate citation of sources) will lead to a lower score. Ordinarily, a paper should have at least nine different sources. (In rare instances, that may be unfeasible; ask ahead of time if you are concerned.)

If your grade on the paper is higher than your lowest test score, then the paper acts as a complete substitute for that score. If your term paper score is lower than your lowest test score, then the test score is used, unless you plagiarized part or all of your paper or turned in a paper that has significant similarity to another paper or assignment you have undertaken in another class. On this latter point (i.e., whether your work is too much like what you have previously done), please email to me the previous paper and explain what you wish to do before you write a paper for this course.

IT IS NO DEFENSE TO PLAGIARISM THAT YOU ACCIDENTALLY TURNED IN A DRAFT OR SOME OTHER WORK RATHER THAN THE WORK YOU INTENDED TO SUBMIT. PLEASE CHECK AND DOUBLE-CHECK YOUR SUBMISSION BOTH BEFORE AND AFTER YOU HAVE SUBMITTED IT. Also, if you took ideas or information from a source, it is always better to err on the side of citing that source repeatedly – even multiple times throughout your paper – than just to cite it a few times and make it appear for other parts of the paper (other sentences) that the work is yours when in fact the idea or information is something you got from that source. Also, note that even footnoting a source is insufficient when you are not simply paraphrasing the source’s contents but taking your wording came directly from that article: then you should cite the source AND also put the language in quotation marks.


There are two, and only two, possibilities of extra credit: (1) a report on a trial or hearing, and (2) a short reaction paper to a law review article. Due dates must be strictly adhered to in order to receive any credit. You can do either one or both (and get credit for both – e.g., 1 point + 1 point).

#1 TRIAL/HEARING REPORT (750 to 900 words in length) The completed paper should be from 750 to 900 words, with that total not counting the citations, the footnoted materials, or any bibliography or title page. While writing more than 900 words will NOT lead to a penalty (you won’t be rewarded either!), writing less than 750 words likely will be penalized. Please submit it in Microsoft Word.

Watch a trial or other legal proceeding.

Many students state that this assignment is very interesting and gives firsthand information on the law and legal system in a way that books and lectures cannot.


Here is a site to find a number of trials or other proceedings. administration/cameras-courts/case-video-archive (Links to an external site.)

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Also, many courts, such as the U.S. Supreme Court or the Florida Supreme Court, have some hearings recorded. DO NOT EVEN TRY TO GO TO A LIVE PROCEEDING. Just watch something online! If you have other links to suggest, please feel free to send them to me.

Very important to me is your assessment of the proceeding and the general conclusions about law, the legal system, and the legal players that may be drawn from the particulars witnessed. Think about what you saw. Be willing to philosophize, if that seems appropriate. Also, if the experience left you with questions, note them.

Some Points to Consider in Your Report

a. What did you see? For a big case, in which you saw only part of the overall case, describe the part you saw (e.g., voir dire, a motion hearing, opening statements) and how it fit into the larger picture of the case.

b. The legal and factual problems in the case or cases.

c. The legal subjects (e.g., contracts, torts) relevant to the case(s).

d. For a case with a jury, the ramifications thereof (e.g., judge’s instructions, attorneys’ terms of persuasion).

e. How would you have handled the case as a juror, lawyer, or judge?


YOU ARE FREE TO WATCH ANY TYPE OF PROCEEDING – state, federal, even international. Administrative or arbitration matters are okay. The proceeding must have taken place since Jan. 1, 2011, and it must NOT concern something you wrote about for a term paper. Also, I very much prefer that you watch a civil (noncriminal) matter, although that is not required. Furthermore, I prefer a trial over an appeals hearing, but the latter is okay. In your report, please give sufficient information that a reader could find and view the proceeding, too.

#2 REACTION PAPER ON A LAW REVIEW ARTICLE (750 to 900 words in length)

The completed paper should be from 750 to 900 words, with that total not counting the citations, the footnoted materials, or any bibliography or title page. While writing more than 90 words will NOT lead to a penalty (you won’t be rewarded either!), writing less than 750 words likely will be penalized. Please submit it in Microsoft Word. Write a brief paper reacting to a law journal article. Almost any law journal article associated with a university publisher will be acceptable. Any of my articles at are certainly acceptable as something to which you react.

The very beginning of the paper should have (1) your name, (2) your UFID, (3) the title – “Reaction Paper to ______ (the article’s title) by (the article’s author), (4) the journal name – e.g., American Business Law Journal, and – if possible – an URL, i.e., web address, for the article), and (5) the length, in pages or word totals, of the article to which you are reacting.

In the body of your paper, you should briefly describe the article and then offer your questions or comments; feel free to bring in concepts or ideas you have learned from the class lectures, the Law, Society, and Business text, the Barron’s textbook, or other courses or life itself! Normally, the article should be at least 5 or 6 pages long, but could be as long as 100 or more pages. You need not read the entire article and react to it, but you should either deal with the entirety of it all or at least some part to which you can intelligibly react.

You are free to quote from the article, but do NOT make your paper a cut-and-paste job, or anything where more than, say, a quarter of your paper consists of quoting or paraphrasing the article. I want your reaction. You could write about points you learned from the article, questions that an article raised in your mind, comparisons to matters you have learned elsewhere (in this class, in another course, from life), other things the article reminds you of or that could be in some way analogized to or related to points/sources in the article. GRADING OF BOTH EXTRA CREDIT PROJECTS (the Trial Report and the Reaction Paper)

Due to the size of the class, ordinarily no individual comments can be returned to the student. Your papers will be read and graded by at least two persons. Most papers will receive a grade of 1 point (to be added onto your point total, on a 100-point final grade scale). For exceptional papers – no more than 5% to 10% of the papers submitted – a grade of up to 1.25 points will be awarded. For papers that do not meet the word totals or otherwise follow instructions, but otherwise were okay, just 0.6 points may be earned. Poor papers may be awarded just 0.3 points. Completely inadequate papers will receive no credit. As is the case for the term papers, plagiarism or other academic dishonesty will result in not just no credit, but penalties. and other plagiarism detectors may be used on all work that is submitted.

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Due to the class size, we will not generally make fine distinctions between extra credit papers (and thereby award point totals all along a 0 to 1.25 point continuum). That simply is not feasible for work of this nature, which is mainly a “learn by doing” type of project. For the term paper, I endeavor to give you comments – a breakdown of the point total, with problems or compliments as to your work. That is not what takes place for the grading of Extra Credit, which should involve much less work on your part (and on the graders’ part!).

Again, as I listed on page 9 of this syllabus (for term paper writing), there are three important LINKS on the front page of the Course Website at “Start Here.”

 Some Writing Tips

 Documenting Legal Research

 Library Resources

APPEALS OF GRADES FOR TERM PAPER OR EXTRA CREDIT If you are displeased with an Extra Credit or Term Paper score, you may write to me, of course. You must complain within seven days after your grade has been posted in order for me to consider your request for a regrading. The usual process then will be that I, often with the assistance of one or more assistants (not just the original readers), will review your work and the complaint. If I believe your paper genuinely deserves a higher grade, I will raise the score. However, if I do not find merit with your complaint (i.e., I conclude that the paper did not merit a higher score), I reserve the right to reduce your score. Normally, I would not do that, but if I conclude that we were generous, compared to most other papers, in terms of the grade we gave your work, then you likely will have a corresponding reduction in your score (not as a penalty for complaining, but to reflect the correct grade). CALCULATING YOUR GRADE FOR THE COURSE


Your best exam score is worth 45% of your final grade (on a 100 point scale), the middle exam score is worth 35% of your final grade, and your worst of the three exam scores (or the term paper score, if better than the lowest exam score) is worth just 20% of your final grade. Extra credit (generally up to two points – one for each project) is simply added to the total derived from your exams.

You do not have to take all three exams. If you fail to take an exam (e.g., the final exam), then any extra credit points are not counted in your course grade calculations and any term paper score you have is reduced by 17.5 points (e.g., a term paper score of 95 becomes a 77.5 ).

If you decide to not take one of the exams (usually, the final exam), please write to and tell me of your decision by 11:59 pm on Mon., April 26. Please indicate that in the subject heading of the email (e.g., “I am not taking the final exam”). Nothing else is required.

Some Specifics

To ensure that you get credit for your extra credit points and full credit for your term paper score, you need to do more than simply not studying at all and then taking the final exam by simply putting any answers you want (i.e., just bubbling in all answers as “A”). Here are the thresholds you must meet. They are very low, but they are better than simply random guesses.

a. Extra Credit. To earn any extra credit points, you must get 30 on the last of the three exams you take (ordinarily, the final exam). IF you get under 30, then you do NOT earn any Extra Credit.

b. Term Papers. If you do not get a 40 or higher on the last of the three exams you take (ordinarily, the final exam), then you have 17.5 points reduced from your Term Paper score. If your score is 40 or better, then you have full credit for your Term Paper score.

NOTE WELL: These rules are designed to encourage people to take all three exams, but certainly NOT to penalize poor test-takers. So these rules are not invoked for your first two exams. Indeed, only in extremely rare cases (final exam scores under 40 points) does a student lose some term paper credit.

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If your other exam scores leave you concerned that you may not get 40 or better on the final exam, please feel free to contact me at least a few days before the final. Indeed, regardless of whether you wrote a term paper or fear such a low final exam score, this advice – to contact me – applies whenever you have concerns or questions.11 Remember: The TAs and I are here to help you.

The final grading scale, based on a 100-point scale, is as follows:

A 93 & above A- 89.5 to 92.99 B+ 86 to 89.49

B 82.5 to 85.99 B- 79 to 82.49 C+ 75.5 to 78.99

C 72 to 75.49 C- 68.5 to 71.99 D+ 65 to 68.49

D 61 to 64.99 D- 56.0 to 60.99 E 55.99 & below

Here is an example of how a final grade would be derived: Student X gets a 90, an 80, and a 65 on his exams. His total points would be 90 times 0.45 (40.5 points), plus 80 times 0.35 (28 points), plus 65 times 0.20 (13 points). His point total would be 81.5, for a B-. If he had extra credit of, say, 2 points, that would bring his point total to 83.5 and he would have a final grade of B. In this case, completing a term paper might have led to a higher final grade, assuming that X’s paper earned a higher score than his lowest exam score. For example, if he had an 88 on a term paper, the 88 points would replace the 65 point total with respect to the 20% amount, and so he would have 90 times 0.45 (40.5 points), plus 80 times 0.35 (28 points), plus 88 times 0.20 (17.6 points) – a point total of 86.1 points, not counting any Extra Credit.

**A SUMMARY OF VITAL INFORMATION ABOUT GRADES AND GRADING** On exams, your grade is presented in points, not as a percentage. On tests, usually I raise all students’ scores an additional, set number of points. Again, do NOT consider the percentages. If, for example, you received 73 points out of 100 possible points on Test One, and I added 5 points to everyone’s score, your point total for the exam would be 78. And that score would be posted as a 78.

Do NOT convert the test scores into percentages. And ignore any percentages automatically generated by the website for a particular test score. For each test or the term paper, it simply does not matter how many total points were possible, but what ultimate point total the student received. The only time that percentages matter is at the very end of the semester, when your three scores (let’s call them P, Q, and R) are multiplied by the aforesaid percentages (45% = 0.45; 35% = 0.35; 20% = 0.20). The grand point total from adding these three products (0.45P + 0.35Q + 0.2R is put within a 100-point scale, as described below. Otherwise, to say it a fourth time(!), stay away from percentages.  Please remember:

1. ANY POSTED SCORE WILL ALREADY HAVE ANY ADDED POINTS (ANY “CURVE”) OR OTHER POINTS ABOVE THE 100 TOTAL INCLUDED IN THE POSTED SCORE. SO, DO NOT ADD MORE POINTS TO YOUR POSTED SCORE. 2. Do not treat an exam score as a percentage. Consider the example above of the posted score of 78. For this class, the score is simply a 78, not 78 times 100/105 (to give you a percentage).

3. When tabulating final grades, we still go by points. If the hypothetical score of 78 is your highest score (your highest point total) for the three exams, then you will multiply 78 times 0.45; if it is the second highest point total on your exams, then it will be 78 times 0.35; if it is the worst of the three test grades (point totals), then you will multiply 78 times 0.20 (unless you are substituting with a higher term paper score, which instead would be multiplied by 0.20).

4. A term paper score replaces your lowest test score (if higher than that test score). It only earns 20% on the grading system even if the term paper score exceeded two or all three of your exam scores.

5. The Extra Credit points are on the 100-point scale; they are added at the end of the term, assuming you have taken all three exams (and scored 30 or better on the final exam).

11 Seventeen and a half points off of a term paper score (in effect, 3.5% off your final grade) is, given the rules above, extremely unlikely if you are prepared for the final exam. Students’ grade concerns tend to be their overall test scores.

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6. As soon as possible, we post exam, term paper, and extra credit scores. You should be diligent in ascertaining the scores you receive. Then, if you have any concerns or questions (e.g., about a mistake in the reported score), you should immediately address them to me (Prof. Emerson).

7. I have too many students and other responsibilities to handle untimely requests for regrading. Ordinarily, no request for regrading (of anything – tests, or papers) made more than seven (7) days after a grade was made available to the student will be honored. Most requests do not lead to a change in grade – e.g., almost always the problem on a test is simply that you picked the wrong answer, not something such as a glitch in grading. In all cases of regrading, it is unlikely, but possible, that instead of raising your grade I may actually lower it (e.g., I determine that the fair grade for your exam actually was a lower grade). A request should come to the professor, not simply a TA.

ABOUT THE TAs There are a couple very talented, intelligent and personable UF law student TAs. There also are many smart, capable, nice volunteers; these Undergrad Assistants (UAs), with Savannah Bergeron, Phillip Latham, Estee Segan, and Jack Ward serving as the head UAs. All of the UAs are accomplished, interesting students who did quite well in BUL 4310. ABOUT YOUR PROFESSOR

I am the Huber Hurst Professor of Business Law at the University of Florida, where I have taught since 1988. Born in 1957, in Washington, D.C., I grew up in the Maryland suburbs of D.C. I earned my B.A., in three years, from the University of the South (Sewanee, Tennessee), graduating Phi Beta Kappa and Summa Cum Laude. After graduating from Harvard Law School with a J.D. in 1982, I practiced law for six years in Baltimore, mainly in litigation. However, because nearly four of those years were with a smaller firm (about 20-30 lawyers), I also had a variety of work in contracting, corporate, partnership, criminal, employment, intellectual property, real estate, wills, maritime, divorce, banking, utility taxes, administrative law, and many other matters (e.g., tort actions involving insurance claims, malpractice, other negligence, and wrongs related to land use or alleged defamation, false imprisonment, battery or other personal harms).

While a part-time business law instructor at Johns Hopkins University and Harford Community College, 1983-88, I caught “the teaching bug” and in March 1988 landed a job at UF. Here, I have authored several dozen law review articles (see some at, numerous books, many book chapters and some scholarly studies. Former chair of UF’s Management Department, I have received a number of awards, including 16 UF Teacher of the Year awards, the international Business Law Academy’s John Bonsignore Career Award for Outstanding Contributions to Undergraduate Legal Studies Education, and seven American Business Law Ass’n and Academy of Legal Studies in Business (ALSB) best article awards. I am the recent winner of the Best Article Award from the International Society of Franchising – the premier academic institute for research from around the world related to all facets of franchising (finance, marketing, accounting, economics, information systems, management, law, etc.).

I was the ALSB Research Symposium Director for many years, am past President of the Southeastern ALSB, and in 2014 received the Senior Scholar Award. I have been a mentor/advisor to both junior professors and to college freshmen. Having served for five years (2010-15) on the Editorial Board of the American Business Law Journal, including as Editor-in-Chief, I am now that journal’s Advisory Editor, an official for the International Law section, and President of the ALSB’s Interdisciplinary Section. My primary research interests are all aspects of the legal system related to franchising, and comparative legal procedure. I try to incorporate comparative law, particularly from the French or German legal systems, into much of my work, although the emphasis remains American law. In line with that interest, my scholarly and teaching experience has become much more international in the last decade. In 2008, I was inducted as an inaugural member (the only North American representative) of the Conseil Scientifique for the International Union of Judicial Officers (IUJO), a 97-nation organization based in Paris. I was a keynote speaker at the triennial IUJO conferences in Marseille 2009, in Madrid 2015, and in Bangkok 2018, and was one of three reporters (an editor and panel organizer) for the conference in Cape Town in 2012.

Invited as a speaker for the International Distribution Institute, the International Society of Franchising, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Brussels Distribution Conference, the Academy of Legal Studies in

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Business, and the International Chamber of Commerce, I have repeatedly served on numerous legal associations and panels and have been a visiting law prof or lecturer on franchising and/or procedural issues at numerous universities – for both faculty and students – in the United States (e.g., Cornell, Florida State, Georgia, Georgia Tech, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio State, Stanford, Texas, U. Penn (Wharton), and Wake Forest) and abroad (e.g., INSEAD, HEC-Paris, Sciences-Po, Sorbonne, Dublin Inst. of Technology, Grenoble EM, London School of Business, MBAI-Paris, Université de Montpellier Law School, ESC-Rouen, Heidelberg University, Muenster University, and Catania University). Your prof has met and conferred on research with law faculty and legal practitioners from dozens of nations (every continent except Antarctica). I also have worked as an arbitrator, board member, textbook and law journal reviewer, and advisor, as well as a franchise law consultant, including expert testimony before Congress.

A proud father of three spectacular (now grown) children, I enjoy, among other things, drama, baseball, and history. I’ve appeared in many local drama and dance productions as well as in a documentary film’s historical reenactment. Other than playing as starting shortstop in Major League Baseball, serving as Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, or starring on Broadway, being a law professor is definitely the best job anyone could have!

To continue with the answer check on

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