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Anatomy &

Physiology

Connie Allen

Valerie Harper

5e

Start Here, Go Anywhere.

I dedicate this book to my new granddaughters, Gianna Leigh Madden and Taralyn Kay Thomas. —Connie Allen

I dedicate this book to my husband Chuck, who has supported and encouraged me, my children Scott and Kate, who were patient when I worked long hours, and my nieces Jessica and Kristina Fatigati,

who are interested in studying anatomy. —Valerie Harper

5th E D I T I O N

Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology

CONNIE ALLEN Edison State College

VALERIE HARPER Colorado Mesa University

VP & EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER Kaye Pace EXECUTIVE EDITOR Bonnie Roesch ASSOCIATE EDITOR Lauren Elfers EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Grace Bagley MARKETING MANAGER Maria Guarascio PRODUCTION MANAGER Juanita Thompson PRODUCTION EDITOR Barbara Russiello SENIOR DESIGNER/COVER DESIGNER Madelyn Lesure SENIOR PHOTO EDITOR MaryAnn Price ILLUSTRATION EDITOR Claudia Volano SENIOR PRODUCT DESIGER Linda Muriello MEDIA SPECIALIST Svetlana Barskaya COVER IIIustration by Bryan Christie Design

This book was typeset in 10/12 Times Roman by Aptara and printed and bound by Courier Kendallville Press. The cover was printed by Courier Kendallville.

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The procedures in this text are intended for use only by students with appropriate faculty supervision. In preparing the text, care has been taken to iden- tify potentially hazardous steps and to insert safety precautions where appropriate. The authors and publisher believe the procedures to be useful tools if performed with the materials and equipment specifi ed, in careful accordance with the instructions and methods in the text. However, these procedures must be conducted at one’s own risk. The author and publisher do not warrant or guarantee the safety of individuals using these procedures and specifi – cally disclaim any and all liability resulting directly or indirectly from the use or application of any information contained in this book.

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Preface

Anatomy and physiology is a challenging course, and this laboratory manual is written to help students meet that challenge. It is written for students interested in allied health fields, such as nursing; physical, respiratory, cardiovascular, or occupational therapy; radiology; and den- tal hygiene. This manual may be used with any two-semester anatomy and physiology textbook.

The design of this laboratory manual is based on the au- thors’ experience as anatomy and physiology instructors and uses three learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. When students label diagrams, they focus on the structure rather than just the dot at the end of a line. Writing out the structure’s name and pronouncing it reinforces learning. Also, having students become subjects of laboratory exer- cises personalizes the learning process. Animal dissections give students an opportunity to physically manipulate struc- tures, comparing location and texture, and to observe how structures are supported, protected, and attached by connec- tive tissue.

Special features incorporated in this laboratory manual include:

• This lab manual can be used for online anatomy and physi- ology classes. New lab activities have been added that can be performed by students at home or used in the labora- tory. Online students can also use the Real Anatomy Virtual Dissection program and PowerPhys physiology activities to enhance their learning.

• Just enough text is provided to introduce concepts in each section and to set up and support the laboratory section. The exercises are written so students do not need their textbooks to complete the laboratory activities.

• New material is divided into small segments, starting with simple diagrams, illustrating the basic concepts and build- ing up to more complex diagrams. Subsequent activities add to the students’ knowledge in a stepwise fashion. This is especially noticed in the skeletal and muscular exercises.

• Each exercise contains a list of objectives, materials needed for the exercise, and easily identifiable laboratory activity sections.

• Unlabeled four-color drawings, photographs, and photomi- crographs are included for students to label either at home or in the laboratory. Students first write out the name of the structure to help learn it. Then the completed diagrams will be used to identify structures on models.

• Word derivatives for bolded terms are given in the text. • Phonetic pronunciation is included as new words are intro-

duced.

• Physiology experiments use students as subjects and can be completed with either simple, inexpensive equipment and materials or more complex lab setups.

• Experimental report sections after physiology experiments where students are asked to make predictions, collect and analyze data, and write simple lab reports.

• Discussion Questions are within the activities to make the students think about the material presented.

• An Answer Key is provided at the end of the laboratory manual for the activities in each exercise. Students receive immediate feedback, and they are not dependent on the in- structor for the correct answers.

• “Reviewing Your Knowledge” and “Using Your Knowl- edge” sections follow the activities at the end of each ex- ercise. “Reviewing Your Knowledge” provides a thorough review of the material in the exercise, whereas “Using Your Knowledge” requires students to apply information learned. Either or both of these sections may be handed in to the instructors for a grade, because neither section has answers in the back of the laboratory manual. Answers to these two sections are provided on the Instructor Companion site.

New Features to the Fifth Edition • Exercises are now organized into Before Going to Lab and

Lab Activities. Before Going to Lab sections are to be com- pleted at home or outside of class.

• Completely revised Exercise 15: Surface Anatomy and Exercise 26: Blood Components and Blood Tests.

• Suggested Real Anatomy activities are included throughout the lab manual.

• PowerPhys 3.0 is now tablet enabled and includes three new modules.

• New Biopac Laboratory Guide Experiments are available online for several Exercises. Activities include: ~ Recruitment and Fatigue ~ Isometric and Isotonic Contractions ~ Effect of Physical and Mental Distractions on Patellar

Reflex (Knee Jerk) Response ~ The Effect of Mental and Sensory Stimulations on Brain

Wave Patterns ~ Observing ANS Responses to Lying ~ Observing ANS Responses Following Meditation ~ Effect of Body Position and Exercise on ECG ~ Heart Sounds and Events of the Cardiac Cycle ~ Effect of Body Position on Resting Blood Pressure ~ Effect of Exercise on Blood Pressure ~ Effect of Exercise on Lung Volumes and Capacities ~ Comparison of Predicted and Measured FVC and FEV1

v

vi P R E F A C E

PowerPhys 3.0 is Tablet Enabled and Fully Integrated with The New Edition

Each Lab Manual contains online access to Power- Phys 3.0 for students. PowerPhys 3.0 is physiologi- cal simulation software for the A & P laboratory that allows students to explore physiology principles through 14 self-contained activities. Each activity follows the scientific method containing objectives with illustrated and animated review material, pre- lab quizzes, pre-lab reports (including predictions and variables), data collection and analysis, and a full lab report with discussion and application questions. Experiments contain real data that is randomly gener- ated, allowing users to experiment multiple times, but still arrive at the same conclusions. These activities focus on core physiological concepts and reinforce techniques experienced in the laboratory. www.wiley. com/go/powerphys • Three New Activities: Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Concentration and

Blood Typing

Acid-Base Balance

Effect of Dietary Fiber on Transit Time and Bile • Now available on mobile devices

Dissection Manuals • Depending on your needs, a Cat Dissection Man-

ual or Fetal Pig Dissection Manual is available to accompany the main Lab Manual. Both dissection manuals contain dissection activities for use in the lab accompanied by full color photos and figures.

• All cat and pig photographs have been updated in the new editions.

• New cat and pig dissection videos accompany this edition, available in WileyPLUS. Dissections per- formed by Shawn Miller and photographs taken by Mark Nielsen of the University of Utah.

Resources That Power Success

Anatomy Drill and Practice lets you test your knowledge of structures with simple-to-use drag and drop labeling exercises, or fill-in-the-blank labeling. You can drill and practice on these ac- tivities using illustrations from the text, cadaver photographs, histology micrographs, or anatomi- cal models, so you can practice labeling these models outside of the lab.

Anatomy Drill and Practice in

Student and Instructor Companion Websites www.wiley.com/college/allen

Resources for Students:

• Audio Glossary • Rat Dissection video • Pig Dissection video • Answers to figure questions • Interactions Review Sheets • Real Anatomy Review Sheets • Lab Safety Guidelines • Experimental Reports • Blood Activities

Resources for Instructors:

• Anatomy and Physiology Visual Library • Editable PowerPoints that include all figures from

the Lab Manual • All tables from the Lab Manual in PowerPoint • All images from the Cat Dissection Manual • All images from the Pig Dissection Manual • Answer Keys for “Reviewing Your Knowledge” • Answer Keys for “Using Your Knowledge” • Interactions Review Sheets • Real Anatomy Review Sheets

vii

Mark Nielsen and Shawn Miller, University of Utah

Real Anatomy is 3-D imaging software that allows you to dissect through

multiple layers of a three-dimensional real human body to study and

learn the anatomical structures of all body systems.

Real Anatomy 2.0

• Now available on the Web, acces- sible by iPad and Android tablets.

• All possible highlight structures on an image are now accessible via a drop-down list as well as being searchable.

NEW to Real Anatomy 2.0

• New crumb trail navigation shows context of system, image, structure.

• Fully integrated into WileyPLUS for Anatomy.

• Dissect through up to 40 layers of the body and discover the relationships of the structures to the whole.

• Rotate the body as well as major organs to view the image from multiple perspectives.

• Use a built-in zoom feature to get a closer look at detail.

• A unique approach to highlighting and labeling struc- tures does not obscure the real anatomy on view.

viii

ix

Photographic Atlas of Human Anatomy, First Edition Mark Nielsen and Shawn Miller, University of Utah

This atlas, filled with outstanding photographs of me-

ticulously executed dissections of the human body, has

been developed to be a strong teaching and learning

solution, not just a catalog of photographs. Organized

around body systems, each chapter includes a narra-

tive overview of the body system followed by detailed

photographs that accurately and realistically represent

the anatomical structures. Histology is included. Pho-

tographic Atlas of Human Anatomy will work well in

your laboratories, as a study companion to your lab

manual, and as a print companion to the Real Anat-

omy DVD.

• Snapshots can be saved of any image for use in Power- Points, quizzes, or handouts

• Audio pronuncia- tion of all labeled structures is readily available

• Related Images provide mul- tiple views of structures being studied.

• Snapshots can be saved of any image for use in PowerPoints, quizzes, or handouts.

• View histology micrographs at varied levels of magnification with the virtual microscope.

• Audio pronunciation of all labeled structures is readily available.

For more information, visit www.wileyplus.com

WileyPLUS builds students’ confidence because it takes the guesswork out of studying by providing students with a clear roadmap:

• what to do • how to do it • if they did it right

It offers interactive resources along with a complete digital textbook that help students learn more. With WileyPLUS, students take more initiative so you’ll have

greater impact on their achievement in the classroom and beyond.

WileyPLUS is a research-based online environment for effective teaching and learning.

Now available for

http://www.wileyplus.com
ALL THE HELP, RESOURCES, AND PERSONAL SUPPORT YOU AND YOUR STUDENTS NEED!

www.wileyplus.com/resources

Technical Support 24/7 FAQs, online chat, and phone support

www.wileyplus.com/support

Student support from an experienced student user

Collaborate with your colleagues, find a mentor, attend virtual and live

events, and view resources

2-Minute Tutorials and all of the resources you and your students need to get started

Your WileyPLUS Account Manager, providing personal training

and support

www.WhereFacultyConnect.com

Pre-loaded, ready-to-use assignments and presentations

created by subject matter experts

Student Partner Program

Quick Start

© Courtney Keating/iStockphoto

Acknowledgments We deeply appreciate the support, instruction, and encour- agement from the members of our editorial, production, and marketing team at Wiley: Bonnie Roesch, Lauren Elfers, Barbara Russiello, MaryAnn Price, and Maria Guarascio. We also wish to thank Gerard Tortora and Bryan Derrickson for producing a wonderful textbook that provided many illustra- tions and ideas for our laboratory manual. A special thank you to Susan Baxley for reviewing all the exercises, making suggestions and to Bob Clemence for allowing us to use his figure of the Respiratory Volumes and Capacities. A special thanks to Charles Harper for answering many clinical ques- tions. We also wish to thank Kierstan Hong at Imagineering Art for the artwork she provided for our laboratory manual.

Thank you to our colleagues at Edison State College: Bob Clemence, Colleen Swanson, Jody Gootkin, Richard McCoy,

Jeff Davis, Dick Felden, Lyman O’Neil, Kitty Gronlund, Tony Contino, Cheryl Black, Jed Wolfson, Jay Koepke, and Roy Hepner who encouraged us, answered our questions, and pro- vided critiques of exercises. We also wish to thank Nicole Yarbrough George for her critique of the skeletal muscle chapter. Thank you to Chaim Jay Margolin of Regional Radiology Associates and David Michie of Clinical Physiol- ogy Associates for providing images for this manual. Special thanks to SOMSO for providing images for our online Anat- omy Drill and Practice: Anatomical Models section. Thanks to contributors Jerri Lindsey, Tarrant County College, and Terry Thompson, Wor-Wic Community College.

WileyPLUS for Anatomy and Physiology is an innovative, research-based online environment—designed for both effec- tive teaching and learning. Utilizing WileyPLUS in your lab course provides your students with an accessible, affordable, and active learning platform and the tools and resources to efficiently build presentations for a dynamic laboratory expe- rience and to create and manage effective assessment strategies. The underlying principles of design, engagement, and mea- surable outcomes provide the foundation for this powerful, new release of WileyPLUS.

Design • New research-based design helps students manage their

time better and develop better study skills • Course Calendars help track assignments for both students

and teachers • New Course Plan makes it easier to assign pre- and post-lab

activities and assessment. Simple drag-and-drop tools make it easy to assign the course plan as-is or in any way that best reflects your course syllabus

The new design makes it easy for students to know what it is they need to do, boosting their confidence and preparing them for greater engagement in lab.

Engagement • Complete online version of the Lab Manual for seamless

integration of all content • Online version of the Lab Manual includes interactive figure

labeling exercises for students • Relevant student study tools and learning resources ensure

positive learning outcomes

• Immediate feedback boosts confidence and helps students see a return on investment for each study session

• Resources like Cadaver Videos, Anatomy Drill, and Prac- tice help students study for laboratory practicals

• Course materials, including editable PowerPoint stacks and Wiley’s Visual Library for Anatomy and Physiology, help you personalize lessons and optimize your time

Concept mastery in this discipline is directly related to stu- dents keeping up with the work and not falling behind. The new Concept Modules, Activities, Self Study, and Progress Checks in WileyPLUS will ensure that students know how to study effectively so they will remain engaged and stay on task.

Measurable Outcomes • Progress check enables students to hone in on areas of

weakness for increased success • Self-assessment and remediation for all learning objectives

lets students know exactly how their efforts have paid off • Instant reports monitor trends in class performance, use of

course materials, and student progress towards learning objectives

• New gradable versions of the PowerPhys 2.0 laboratory re- ports allow you to assign and grade these within WileyPLUS

With new detailed reporting capabilities students will know that they are doing it right. With increased confidence, motiva- tion is sustained so students stay on task, and success will fol- low. Please contact your Wiley representative for details about these and other resources or visit our website at www.wiley. com/college/sc/aandp and click on the laboratory text cover to explore the assets more fully.

WileyPLUS and You

xii

E X E R C I S E 5 T R A N S P O R T A C R O S S T H E P L A S M A M E M B R A N E 43

Contents Preface

INTRODUCTION EXERCISE 1 Anatomical Language 1

EXERCISE 2 Organ Systems and Body Cavities 13

CELL AND TISSUES EXERCISE 3 Compound Light Microscope 23

EXERCISE 4 Cell Structure and Cell Cycle 31

EXERCISE 5 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 41

EXERCISE 6 Tissues 51

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM EXERCISE 7 The Integumentary System Structure and

Function 83

SKELETAL SYSTEM AND JOINTS EXERCISE 8 Bone Structure and Function 95

EXERCISE 9 Axial Skeleton 105

EXERCISE 10 Appendicular Skeleton 137

EXERCISE 11 Joints and Synovial Joint Movements 159

MUSCULAR SYSTEM: SKELETAL MUSCLES EXERCISE 12 Skeletal Muscle Structure 173

EXERCISE 13 Contraction of Skeletal Muscle 185

EXERCISE 14 Skeletal Muscles and Their Actions 197

SURFACE ANATOMY EXERCISE 15 Surface Anatomy 233

NERVOUS SYSTEM EXERCISE 16 Nervous Tissue 255

EXERCISE 17 Spinal Cord Structure and Function 269

EXERCISE 18 Spinal Nerves 279

EXERCISE 19 Somatic Reflexes 289

EXERCISE 20 Brain Structure and Function 299

EXERCISE 21 Cranial Nerves 323

EXERCISE 22 Autonomic Nervous System Structure and Function 333

EXERCISE 23 General Senses 345 EXERCISE 24 Special Senses 359

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM EXERCISE 25 Endocrine Structure and Function 391

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM EXERCISE 26 Blood Components and Blood Tests 411

EXERCISE 27 Heart Structure and Function 431

EXERCISE 28 Cardiac Cycle 451

EXERCISE 29 Blood Vessel Structure and Function 463

EXERCISE 30 Blood Vessel Identification 479

LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS EXERCISE 31 Lymphatic System Structure and Immune

System Function 507

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM EXERCISE 32 Respiratory System Structure and Function 527

EXERCISE 33 Pulmonary Ventilation 545

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM EXERCISE 34 Digestive System Structure and Function 561

EXERCISE 35 Mechanical and Chemical Digestion 589

URINARY SYSTEM EXERCISE 36 Urinary System Structure and Function 597

EXERCISE 37 Urine Formation and Urinalysis 615

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS EXERCISE 38 Male Reproductive System Structure and

Function 627

EXERCISE 39 Female Reproductive System Structure and Function 643

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND HEREDITY EXERCISE 40 Human Development 661

EXERCISE 41 Heredity 675

Answer Key to Activities 689

APPENDIX A: Word Roots 709

APPENDIX B: Skeletal Muscle Origins and Insertions 711

APPENDIX C: Measurements 717

Photo Credits 719

Index 721

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E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E 1

Anatomical terms describe body positions, body regions, specific body areas, and land-marks. Most of these words are derived from Latin or Greek and are often part of the names of muscles, bones, nerves, and blood vessels. Learning these terms at this time will help you throughout the course.

A. Anatomical Terms

The anatomical position is the reference position anato- mists and people in medical fi elds use to describe the loca- tion of body parts or regions. In the anatomical position, the body is erect (vertical) and facing forward; the arms are straight and at the sides of the body with the palms facing forward; the legs are straight with the feet facing forward and fl at (Figure 1.1). In the supine position, the body is horizontal and lying on the back. In the prone position, the body is horizontal and lying on the stomach. Body regions refer to specifi c areas of the body. There are common misperceptions about the boundaries of a few body regions. Two common misconceptions are that the arm is the area between the shoulder and wrist and that the leg includes the

thigh. Actually, the arm is located between the shoulder and elbow, and the forearm is located from the elbow to wrist. The thigh is located between the groin and knee, and the leg is located between the knee and ankle. The chest is the area of the trunk between the neck and diaphragm and contains the heart and lungs. The abdomen is the area of the trunk between the diaphragm and hip bones and contains the digestive organs. The pelvis is the area of the trunk below the hip bones and contains internal reproductive organs and the urinary bladder. The groin is the area on the anterior (front) surface marked by a crease where the lower limb attaches to the pelvis. Many anatomical terms have one or more word roots with a prefi x and/or a suffi x added. For example, in the word antecubital, ante- is a prefi x meaning before or in front of, the word root cubit- means elbow, -al is a suffi x meaning pertaining to. Table 1.1 contains anatomical terms with four different suffi xes, all of which mean pertaining to. These suffi xes are -al, -ic, -ar, and -ary. When suffi xes like these are added to word roots they form adjectives, whereas nouns have different endings such as -um, -us, -is, and -a. For example, stern- is a word root meaning chest; sternum is the noun and sternal is the adjective. Anatomi- cal terms and their defi nitions are found in Table 1.1. Word roots and their defi nitions are found in Appendix A, as well as nouns and adjectives formed from the word roots.

O B J E C T I V E S M A T E R I A L S

• human models or anatomical charts • apples (1 per group) and plastic knives or

scalpels

• plastic tubing (eight-inch piece per group) or plastic straw

• 5 sheep brains (for class demonstration)

Anatomical Language 1

E X E R C I S E

1 Describe the anatomical position

2 Use anatomical and directional terms correctly

3 Identify the various body planes and sections

1

2 E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E

LAB ACTIVITY 1 Anatomical Terms

1 Use anatomical terms to identify the specific body regions or areas on models, anatomical charts, or yourself. ■

Before Going to Lab

1 Label Figure 1.1 with the appropriate anatomical terms for each body region or area. Refer to Table 1.1.

2 Refer to Appendix A to review how word roots, suf- fixes, and prefixes are combined to form nouns and adjectives.

TABLE 1 .1 Anatomical Terms

TERM

AXIAL

Cephalic (se-FAL-ik) • Cranial

• Facial • Frontal • Orbital • Otic (OH-tik) • Nasal • Buccal (BUCK-al) • Oral • Mental • Occipital (ox-SIP-i-tal)

Cervical Thoracic • Sternal • Pectoral • Mammary Abdominal • Umbilical (um-BIL-ih-cal) • Coxal (COX-al) Pelvic • Pubic (PYOO-bik) Dorsal • Scapular

• Vertebral (ver-TEE-brul)

• Lumbar

DEF IN IT ION

Pertaining to the central part of the body, the head and

trunk Pertaining to the head Pertaining to the portion of the skull surrounding the brain Pertaining to the face Pertaining to the forehead Pertaining to the eye Pertaining to the ear Pertaining to the nose Pertaining to the cheek Pertaining to the mouth Pertaining to the chin Pertaining to the back of head Pertaining to the neck Pertaining to the chest Pertaining to the breast bone Pertaining to the chest Pertaining to the breast Pertaining to the abdomen Pertaining to the navel Pertaining to the hip Pertaining to the pelvis Pertaining to the genital area Pertaining to the back Pertaining to the shoulder blade region Pertaining to the spinal column Pertaining to the area of the back between the lowest

rib and buttocks.

TERM

APPENDICULAR

Upper Limb (Appendage) • Acromial (a-KROM-ee-al)

• Axillary (AX-il-ary) • Brachial (BRAY-key-ul) • Antecubital (an-teh-

KYOO-bi-tul) • Olecranal (oh-LEK-ra-nul)

• Antebrachial • Carpal • Manual • Palmar

• Digital Lower Limb (Appendage) • Inguinal (ING-won-ul)

• Gluteal (GLUE-tee-ul) • Femoral (FEM-or-ul) • Patellar (pa-TEL-ur)

• Popliteal (pop-lih-TEE-ul)

• Crural (CROO-rul)

• Fibular (FIB-you-lur) or peroneal (peh-RONE-ee-ul)

• Sural (SIR-ul)

• Tarsal (TAR-sul) • Pedal • Plantar • Calcaneal (kal-KANE-ee-ul) • Digital

DEF IN IT ION

Pertaining to the extremities or limbs

Pertaining to the highest point of the shoulder Pertaining to the armpit Pertaining to the arm Pertaining to the anterior (front) surface of the elbow Pertaining to the posterior (back) surface of the elbow Pertaining to the forearm Pertaining to the wrist Pertaining to the hand Pertaining to the palm of the hand Pertaining to the digits (fingers)

Pertaining to the groin where the thigh attaches to the

pelvis Pertaining to the buttocks Pertaining to the thigh Pertaining to the anterior (front) surface of the knee Pertaining to the posterior (back) surface of the knee Pertaining to the anterior (front) surface of the leg Pertaining to the lateral side of the leg Pertaining to the posterior (back) surface of the leg Pertaining to the ankle Pertaining to the foot Pertaining to the sole of foot Pertaining to the heel Pertaining to the digits (toes)

E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E 3

Thoracic

Pelvic

Abdominal

(a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view

3

5

4

6

8

7

13

16

15

14

12 11

30

31

26

27

28

25 24

23 22 21 20 19 18 17

29

1

2

10

34

35

38

36

40 (sole)

39

37

32

33

42

9 41

TR U

N K

FIGURE 1.1 Anatomical terms.

(a) Anterior View

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

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24

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26

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28 ________________________

29

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42

(b) Posterior View

4 E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E

TABLE 1 .2 Directional Terms

DIRECT IONAL TERM DEF IN IT ION EXAMPLE OF USE

Superior Above The head is superior to the neck. Inferior Below The neck is inferior to the head. Anterior (Ventral) Closer to front of body The lips are anterior to the teeth. Posterior (Dorsal) Closer to back of body The teeth are posterior to the lips. Medial Closer to midline of body The nose is medial to the eyes. Lateral Farther from midline of body The eyes are lateral to the nose. Intermediate Between two structures The elbow is intermediate between

the shoulder and wrist. Ipsilateral On same side of body The right arm and right leg are ipsilateral. Contralateral On opposite sides of body The right arm and left arm are contralateral. Proximal Nearer to point of attachment of The elbow is proximal to the wrist. limb to trunk Distal Farther from point of attachment The wrist is distal to the elbow. of limb to trunk Superficial Closer to surface of body The skin is superficial to the muscles. Deep Farther from surface of body The muscles are deep to the skin.

B. Directional Terms

Directional terms are used to describe the location of body structures relative to other structures. An example of a di- rectional term is inferior, which means below. It would be correct to say that the neck is inferior to the head but incorrect to say that the neck is inferior. The directional terms are listed in Table 1.2, along with an example of how they are used. Note that opposite terms are paired. The directional terms proximal and distal apply to the point of attachment of a limb to the torso or the point of origin of a structure such as a blood vessel or nerve. These terms refer to the location of structures relative to the point of attachment or point of origin, whether they are closer (proximal) or farther away (distal). More than one directional term can apply to describe the location of a body structure. For example, the ears are posterior and lateral to the nose.

Before Going to Lab

1 Label Figure 1.2 with the directional terms from the bulleted list by writing the term in the appropriate num- bered blank.

2 3

4

1

6 5

• anterior or ventral

• distal

• inferior

• posterior or dorsal

• proximal

• superior

1

2

3

4

5

6

FIGURE 1.2 Directional terms.

LAB ACTIVITY 2 Directional Terms

1 With your partner, complete the sentences using the appropriate directional term from Table 1.2. Refer to the anatomical terms in Table 1.1 and Appendix A as needed.

a. The sternum is ______________ to the vertebrae.

b. The nose is ___________ and __________ to the eyes.

c. The heart is ______________ to the lungs.

d. The wrist is ______________ to the arm.

e. The right lung and right kidney are _____________ .

f. The skin is ______________ to the bones. ■

E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E 5

C. Body Planes and Sections

Planes are fl at surfaces that divide the body or organs in order to expose internal structures (Figure 1.3). The exposed surfaces produced by planes are called sections. Sagittal (sagitta � arrow) planes pass vertically through the body or organs and divide them into right and left sections (sag- ittal sections). If a plane passes vertically through the midline and di- vides the body into equal right and left halves, the plane is a midsagittal plane, but if a plane divides the body into unequal right and left portions, it is a parasagittal plane. A frontal or coronal plane passes vertically through the body or organs and produces anterior and posterior sections (frontal sections). A transverse plane passes horizontally through the body and produces superior and inferior sections (transverse sections or cross-sections). Oblique planes pass through the body at an angle forming oblique sections. We often look at sections of individual organs, such as blood vessels, intestines, or long bones. Sections that are produced by a plane running along the long axis of a long narrow structure are called longitudinal sections. Sections that are produced by a plane running perpendicular to the long axis are called cross-sections. Because blood vessels and intestines twist and bend, one body plane may produce longitudinal sections, cross-sections, and oblique sections of these structures.

(a) Right anterolateral view

2

3

4

5

1

6 7

(b) Longitudinal and cross-sections

• cross-section

• frontal plane

• longitudinal section

• midsagittal plane

• oblique plane

• parasagittal plane

• transverse plane

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

FIGURE 1.3 Body planes and sections.

CLINICAL NOTE: Transverse sections observed with com- puted tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) are called axial sections.

Before Going to Lab

1 Label the planes in Figures 1.3(a) and the sections in Figure 1.3(b) with the terms in the accompanying bul- leted list by writing the term in the appropriate numbered blank.

2 Identify the type of sections of the human brain in Figure 1.4.

6 E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E

• frontal

• midsagittal

• transverse

a

b

c

(a) (b)

(c)

FIGURE 1.4 Human brain sections.

into a longitudinal section and another area into a cross-section.

• Do not cut the tube unless instructed to do so. • Show your instructor where a cut would produce

both a longitudinal section and a cross-section.

3 Identify sagittal, frontal, transverse, and oblique sections on sheep brains. • Your instructor will display five sheep brains—one

whole brain and four brains that have been cut into different sections.

• Determine the anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior surfaces of the brains.

• Decide which brain has been cut into sagittal, frontal, transverse, or oblique sections.

• Compare the appearance of the different sections.

Brain 1—Whole brain

Brain 2 section

Brain 3 section

Brain 4 section

Brain 5 section ■

LAB ACTIVITY 3 Body Planes and Sections

1 Observe sagittal, frontal, and transverse sections using an apple. • Working in a group, draw a face on the apple. • Cut sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes through

the apple to make sagittal, frontal, and transverse sections.

• Compare the appearance of the apple core in each section. Describe any difference in shape, size, and number of seed chambers.

• Keep sections together to form a whole apple to show to your instructor.

2 Observe longitudinal sections and cross-sections using plastic tubing or plastic straw. • Observe a demonstration provided by your instructor

of a tube cut along its longitudinal axis to produce a longitudinal section and a tube cut perpendicular to its longitudinal axis to produce a cross-section.

• Obtain an eight-inch piece of plastic tubing or plastic straw and twist it so you can visualize one plane that would simultaneously divide one area of the tube

Name ___________________________________ Date _________________ Section ______________________________

1 E X E R C I S E

7

Reviewing Your Knowledge

A. Body Regions

Complete the following sentences.

1. The leg is to the lower limb as the ____ is to the upper limb.

2. The arm is to the upper limb as the ____ is to the lower limb.

3. The armpit is to the upper limb as the ____ is to the lower limb.

4. The tarsal bones are to the lower limb as the ____ bones are to the upper limb.

5. The elbow is to the upper limb as the ____ is to the lower limb.

6. The shoulder is to the upper limb as the ____ is to the lower limb.

7. True or False. The hand includes the wrist and fingers and the foot includes the ankles and toes.

8. True or False. The bones of the face are also part of the skull.

B. Anatomical Terms

Write the anatomical terms that the phrase or word describes. Phrases or words referring to nouns are indicated. All other phrases refer to adjectives.

1. Navel (noun)

2. Pertaining to the area between the neck and abdomen

3. Pertaining to the ear

4. Pertaining to the palm of hand

5. Pertaining to the high point of the shoulder

6. Pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow region

7. Pertaining to the face; anterior portion of the head

8. Pertaining to the nose

8 E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E

9. Pertaining to the neck

10. Pertaining to the posterior surface of the knee

11. Wrist (noun)

12. Pertaining to the area between the elbow and wrist

13. Back (noun)

14. Armpit area (noun)

15. Pertaining to the mouth

16. Pertaining to the anterior surface of the knee

17. Breast bone (noun)

18. Pertaining to the hip

19. Pertaining to the side of the leg

20. Pertaining to the calf

21. Pertaining to the area between the shoulder and elbow

22. Pertaining to the fingers or toes

23. Pertaining to the hand

24. Pertaining to the breast

25. Pertaining to the cheek

26. Pertaining to the heel

27. Pertaining to the sole of the foot

28. Pertaining to the groin where the thigh attaches to the pelvic region

29. Pertaining to the head

30. Pertaining to the chin

31. Pertaining to the foot

32. Pertaining to the eye

33. Pertaining to the genital area

34. Pertaining to the area between the hip and knee

35. Pertaining to the area that includes the bones enclosing the brain

36. Pertaining to the forehead

E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E 9

37. Pertaining to the spinal column

38. Pertaining to the inferior back of the head

39. Pertaining to the anterior surface of the leg

40. Pertaining to the area of the lower back or loin

41. Pertaining to the trunk below the abdomen

42. Pertaining to the area of the back that contains the shoulder blades

43. Pertaining to the posterior surface of the elbow

44. Arm (noun)

45. Pertaining to the chest

46.

C. Body Planes and Sections

Write the name of the plane that the phrase describes.

1. Divides body or organ into unequal right and left sections

2. Divides body or organ into anterior and posterior sections

3. Divides body or organ into superior and inferior sections

4. Divides body into right and left halves

5. Which planes when passed through the body would result in two sections, with each section containing a piece of the heart and a piece of each lung?

6. ¯̊ ˘̊

˙ ¯

˘ ˙

10 E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E

D. Directional Terms

Complete the sentences using directional terms. Use Figure 1.5 for reference.

1. The clavicle is to the ribs.

2. The ribs are to the sternum.

3. The humerus is to the radius.

4. The ulna is to the radius.

5. The tibia is to the femur.

6. The right humerus and the right radius are .

7. The pelvic girdle is to the ribs.

8. The sternum is to the vertebral column.

9. The scapula is to the clavicle.

10. The right fibula and left fibula are .

SUPERIOR SUPERIOR

Skull

Cranial portion

Facial portion

Pectoral (shoulder) girdle

Clavicle Scapula

Thorax Sternum

Ribs

Upper limb (extremity)

Humerus

Ulna Radius

Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges

Lower limb (extremity)

Femur

Patella

Tibia

Fibula

Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

Vertebral column

Pelvic (hip) girdle

Vertebral column

Pelvic (hip) girdle

(b) Posterior view(a) Anterior view

FIGURE 1.5 Human skeleton.

Name ___________________________________ Date _________________ Section ______________________________

E X E R C I S E

Name ___________________________________ Date _________________ Section ______________________________

11

A. Body Regions, Anatomical Terminology, and Directional Terms

1. A 55-year-old male presented with an irregularly shaped and abnormally pigmented mole in the left scapular region, just lateral to the vertebrae. Indicate on Figure 1.6 where this mole is likely to be found.

2. A 37-year-old female presented to the emergency room with a severe burn (3rd degree) on the right brachial region just proximal to the antecubital region. Indicate on Figure 1.6 where the laceration is likely to be found.

3. A 19-year-old female was identified by a tattoo on the fibular surface of the right leg just proximal to the tarsal region. Indicate on Figure 1.6 where the tattoo is likely to be found.

1 E X E R C I S EUsing Your Knowledge

Questions 4–7 have italicized words that are derived from word roots used to form the adjectives in Table 1.1. Using the locations suggested by the italicized words, answer questions 4–7.

4. Is the popliteal artery proximal or distal to the femoral artery?

5. Is the pectoralis major muscle anterior or posterior to the subscapularis muscle?

(a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view

FIGURE 1.6 Body regions, anatomical language, and directional terms.

12 E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E

6. Is the sternocleidomastoid muscle superior or inferior to the rectus abdominis muscle?

7. Are the thoracic vertebrae medial or lateral to the scapulae?

B. Body Planes and Sections

Figure 1.7 contains three different sections through the thorax. Indicate which section (view a, b, or c) is a

8. Frontal section ______

9. Sagittal section ______

10. Transverse (axial) section ______

FIGURE 1.7 Sections through the thorax.

Right lung

Liver Vertebral column

Left kidney

Small intestine

Stomach

(a)

Liver Vertebra Stomach Spleen

(b)

Spinal cord

Vertebral column Trachea

Heart

Sternum

(c)

E X E R C I S E 2 O R G A N S Y S T E M S A N D B O D Y C A V I T I E S 13

Organ systems are like different depart-ments within a company. Within a company, departments work together to keep the com- pany functioning. Within the body, organ systems work together to keep the body alive. In this exercise, you will learn the basic function and location of each organ system.

A. Overview of Organ Systems and Major Organs

An organ system is a group of organs performing a com- mon function. All organ systems cooperate to maintain an optimal environment for body cells through a process called homeostasis (homeo- � same; stasis � standing). Failure to maintain homeostasis results in disorders, dis- ease, and possibly death.

O B J E C T I V E S M A T E R I A L S

• human torso models or charts • male and female human reproductive models or

charts

• paper or plastic large enough to outline student torsos, markers

• articulated skeleton • one-gallon zippered plastic bags (1 per group) • masking tape • rat dissection video in the Wiley Student

Companion Site

Organ Systems and Body Cavities 2

E X E R C I S E

1 Name the organ systems and describe the functions of each

2 Name and identify the major organs of each organ system

3 Describe the location of the body cavities and name the organs they contain

4 Describe the structure, location, and function of the serous membranes

5 Identify the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions and the major organs found in each

13

Before Going to Lab

1 Observe the organs in Figures 2.1(a) and (b). Refer to your textbook for a list of organ systems, their function, and the major organs in each organ system.

2 Write each labeled organ under the appropriate organ system. There may be organ systems that don’t have any organs in these figures, and some organs may function with more than one system.

14 E X E R C I S E 2 O R G A N S Y S T E M S A N D B O D Y C A V I T I E S

FIGURE 2.1 Selected organs and organ systems.

Body Systems

Cardiovascular System

Digestive System

Endocrine System

Integumentary System

Lymphatic System

Muscular System

Nervous System

Reproductive System

Respiratory System

Skeletal System

Urinary System

Trachea

Bronchus

Thoracic aorta

Diaphragm

Lung

Esophagus

Stomach

Inferior vena cava

Pancreas (posterior to stomach) Kidney

Abdominal aorta

Spleen

Ureter

Urinary bladder

(b) Deeper organs

Trachea

Lung

Heart

Aorta

Liver

Large intestine

Small intestine

Diaphragm

(a) Superficial organs

E X E R C I S E 2 O R G A N S Y S T E M S A N D B O D Y C A V I T I E S 15

8 Answer the following questions about the position of each organ on the torso model or Figure 2.1.

1. The stomach is _______ to the small intestine.

a. superior b. inferior c. medial d. lateral

2. The liver is _______ to the lungs.

a. superior b. inferior c. medial d. lateral

3. The lungs are _______ to the heart.

a. superior b. inferior c. medial d. lateral

4. The trachea is _______ to the esophagus.

a. medial b. inferior c. anterior d. posterior

5. The pancreas is _______ to the stomach.

a. superior b. anterior c. lateral d. posterior

6. The large intestine is _______ to the stomach.

a. superior b. inferior c. posterior d. lateral

7. The stomach is _______ to the spleen.

a. lateral b. medial c. superior d. inferior

8. The abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava are _______ to the kidneys.

a. medial b. lateral c. superior d. inferior

9. The kidneys are _______ to the small intestine.

a. anterior b. posterior c. superior d. inferior

10. The urinary bladder is _______ to the kidneys.

a. posterior and superior b. medial and inferior c. medial and superior d. lateral and posterior ■

LAB ACTIVITY 2 Organ Location

1 Draw the outline of a full-size torso on paper or plastic. 2 Using a marker, draw life-size outlines of all superficial

organs in the appropriate place on the paper or plastic torso. ■

LAB ACTIVITY 1 Identification of Organs on Torso

You will be identifying organs from anterior to posterior on a torso model and answering questions concerning their position relative to the organs around them.

1 Identify the following organs on the anterior surface of a torso model. Identify all the organs without removing any organs from the model. • brain • trachea • heart • lungs • liver • stomach (torso’s left side) • small intestine • large intestine (colon)

2 Remove the lungs, heart, liver, and stomach. Locate the gallbladder on the inferior surface of the liver.

3 Identify the following organs on the human torso model or chart: • esophagus • bronchi (right and left) • inferior vena cava • pancreas (posterior to stomach) • spleen

4 Remove the small intestine and large intestine. Locate the appendix at the inferior right end of the large intestine.

5 Identify the following organs on the human torso model: • abdominal aorta • adrenal glands (superior surface of kidneys) • kidneys • ureters • urinary bladder

6 Identify the female reproductive organs on a female reproductive model or chart. Observe the position of the urinary bladder relative to the uterus. • ovaries • uterus • urinary bladder

7 Identify the male reproductive organs on a male repro- ductive model or chart. • penis • scrotum (skin covering testes) • testes

16 E X E R C I S E 2 O R G A N S Y S T E M S A N D B O D Y C A V I T I E S

peritoneal cavity. Although most abdominal organs are positioned within the peritoneal cavity, a few organs are retroperitoneal (retro- � backward), or located posterior to the peritoneum. These organs are the pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, and portions of the large intestine, small intestine, aorta, and inferior vena cava. The pelvic cavity is the inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity. The pelvic cavity contains part of the large intestine, rectum, urinary bladder, female reproductive organs (ovaries, uter- ine tubes, uterus, vagina), and male reproductive organs (prostate, and part of ductus deferens). It is important to note that the testes and penis are not located in the pelvic cavity but are located inferior to it.

LAB ACTIVITY 3 Body Cavities

1 Locate the major body cavities on a skeleton and torso model. Identify the organs located in each body cavity.

2 Locate the mediastinum (meed-ee-uh-STINE-um) on a torso model or on Figure 2.1. Identify the organs located within the mediastinum. ■

Before Going to Lab

1 Label the major body cavities and the diaphragm on Figure 2.2(a) and (b).

• abdominal cavity • cranial cavity • diaphragm • pelvic cavity • thoracic cavity • vertebral canal

1

2

3

4

5

6

(a) Right lateral view (b) Anterior view

1

2

3

4

5

6

FIGURE 2.2 Body cavities.

B. Body Cavities

Many of the body’s organs are found within body cavities. The cranial cavity contains the brain, and it is continuous with the vertebral (vertebra � back) canal that contains the spinal cord. The thoracic cavity is a space enclosed by the ribs, sternum, and vertebral column. This cavity contains three small cavities: the pericardial cavity (peri- � around; -cardia � heart) and two pleural cavities (pleuro- � side or rib). The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart, and each pleural cavity contains a lung. The mediastinum (media- � middle; -stinum � partition), a central area within the thoracic cavity, extends from the neck to the diaphragm and from the sternum to the vertebral column. The organs located in the mediastinum are the heart, thymus gland, esophagus, trachea, blood vessels, and bronchi. The pleural cavities are located on either side of the mediasti- num. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity. The abdominopelvic cavity consists of two continuous cavities: the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity. The abdominal cavity is the superior portion located between the diaphragm and the brim of the pelvis (hip bones). This cavity contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pan- creas, spleen, small intestine, kidneys, appendix, and part of the large intestine. Within the abdominal cavity is the

E X E R C I S E 2 O R G A N S Y S T E M S A N D B O D Y C A V I T I E S 17

C. Serous Membranes

Most of the organs in the ventral body cavity are covered with thin serous (serum � any clear, watery fl uid) mem- branes, which are composed of two layers: a visceral layer and a parietal layer. The visceral (viscera � internal organs) layer covers the organ, whereas the parietal (paries � wall) layer attaches to and covers the ventral body wall. These two layers make up one continuous sheet that folds to form a sac. Between the two layers is a poten- tial cavity containing a small amount of serous fl uid se- creted by the membranes. The clear, watery serous fl uid prevents friction as the organs move within the ventral body cavity. For example, the heart has movement within the thoracic cavity as it fi lls with and ejects blood. Serous membranes are named for the cavities they sur- round. Thoracic serous membranes include the pleura, which covers the lungs, and the pericardium, which cov- ers the heart. The serous membrane that covers the abdom- inal organs is the peritoneum ( peri- � around; teinein � to stretch).

Before Going to Lab

1 In Figure 2.3, observe how the serous pericardium folds to form a double layer.

2 Label the two layers of the serous pericardium in Figure 2.3.

LAB ACTIVITY 4 Serous Membranes

1 Make a replica or model of a serous membrane with your lab group. • Obtain a 1-gallon zippered plastic bag. • Push all the air out of the bag and zip the bag. • Have a lab partner place a fist (simulating an organ)

on the bottom edge of the bag and push up into the bag so the bag surrounds the fist.

• Remove the fist, unzip the bag, and add about 40 to 50 mL of water to the bag. Push out the extra air before rezipping the bag.

• Now have the same lab partner place a fist (simulat- ing an organ) on the bottom edge of the bag and push up into the bag so the bag surrounds the fist.

2 Clean up as directed by your instructor. 3 Answer the Discussion Questions with your lab group.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Serous Membranes

1 In the bag with water, what is the name of the simulated serous membrane layer that is touching the fist (organ)?

2 In the same bag, what is the name of the simulated outer serous membrane layer?

3 What does the water represent?

4 Was it easier to push a fist into the bag with no water or into the bag with water?

5 Based on your observations, does the presence of serous fluid make it easier for organs to move? Explain.

D. Organ Systems, Body Cavities, and Serous Membranes in the Rat

The organ systems, body cavities, and serous membranes of the rat are similar to those of humans. The rat dissec- tion will allow you to see the relationship of organs to each other, organ location within body cavities, and serous membranes.

• parietal • visceral

1

2

FIGURE 2.3 Serous pericardium folds to surround the heart.

Heart

Serous pericardium Pericardial cavity with serous fluid

2

1

Pericardial cavity

LAB ACTIVITY 5 Rat Dissection Video

Go to the Wiley Student Companion Site to view the rat dissection video. ■

18 E X E R C I S E 2 O R G A N S Y S T E M S A N D B O D Y C A V I T I E S

e. pancreas

f. small intestine

g. spleen

h. stomach

4 Using four pieces of masking tape, divide the abdomino- pelvic cavity into regions on a human torso or on yourself.

5 Using the torso model or your textbook, identify in which abdominopelvic region each organ is primarily located.

a. appendix

b. gallbladder

c. left ovary

d. bifurcation of the abdominal aorta

e. spleen

f. stomach (majority of) ■

NOTE: Right and left always refer to the model’s or speci- men’s own right and left.

LAB ACTIVITY 6 Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions

1 Using a piece of masking tape, mark the location of the diaphragm on a human torso or on yourself.

2 Using two pieces of masking tape, divide the abdominopel- vic cavity into quadrants on a human torso or on yourself.

3 Using the torso model or your textbook, identify in which abdominopelvic quadrant(s) each organ is pri- marily located. Use the abbreviations RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, and LLQ.

a. appendix

b. large intestine or colon

c. liver

d. ovaries

Before Going to Lab

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