Social Science homework help

Question 17

1.

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Which of the following statements helps explain why Jack Katz thought his book, Seductions of Crime, explained deviance in a new way?

Answer

Conflict theorists have frequently argued that differences in economic resources give elites the ability to control the coercive apparatus of the state. Pronounced economic differences also provide elites with a need to maintain order.

Three decades ago, criminologists widely decried the failure of rehabilitative efforts to reduce recidivism. This “nothing works” attitude permeated the field of criminal justice, and a period of punitive justice was ushered in.

The social science literature contains only scattered evidence of what it means, feels, sounds, tastes, or looks like to commit a particular crime.

Society should be considered as a cross between the cultural “goals” that it believes its members should strive for, and the “means” that are believed, legally or morally, to be legitimate ways that individuals should attain these goals.

The discussion of positivist theories centering on peculiarities or abnormalities of the individual considers theories related to physical appearance, mental deficiency and feeblemindedness, hereditary and biological defectiveness, and psychiatry.

Question 19

1.

Kate Bornstein argues that civil-rights legislation designed to protect people with alternative sexualities mostly helps straight-acting, straight-appearing people because:

Answer

straight-acting, straight-appearing people have never been labeled deviant

in order to generate social cohesion, we have to find someone to discriminate against

the more someone deviates from the “perfect identity,” the less power they have

such legislation is designed to help punish those who are extremely different from the mainstream

those who can’t “pass” as straight in public are rebels

Question 22

1.

Instead of solely examining background factors, what does the sociologist Jack Katz think that sociologists should study when trying to understand deviance?

Answer

the deviant’s own experience of committing a deviant act

the correlation between deviance and poverty

the way that deviance tends to be handed down through generations

the role that poverty plays in encouraging deviance

the hidden correlation between crime and marital status

Question 23

1.

What is the Uniform Crime Report used for?

Answer

to assign federal law-enforcement funding to different areas

to understand all the norm violations that occur

to understand the interplay of taboos and mores

to understand sentencing guidelines as they relate to race and class

to make comparisons in crime rates between years and geographic regions

Question 24

1.

Which of the following is true of entomophagy, the eating of insects?

Answer

The 1,462 species of edible insects are very environmentally friendly to raise.

There are few taboos as strong in the contemporary United States as the one against eating bugs.

Many bugs have a better feed-to-meat ratio than other animals.

Many bugs have a better protein-to-fat ratio than other animals that are raised for meat.

all of the above

Question 25

1.

Today ecoterrorists in America have taken many radical actions, including burning down ski lodges, blowing up Hummers, freeing lab animals, and chaining themselves to trees. These actions are often seen as extremely deviant, but many of the perpetrators believe that in the future they will be hailed as heroes, in which case their actions will be seen as:

Answer

positive deviance

symbolic deviance

rehabilitation

violent crime

in-group orientation

Question 27

1.

Which of these factors make sociologists question the relationship between youth and crime?

Answer

Official crime statistics show that middle-aged people commit a large percentage of the crimes in our society.

Young people may commit crimes that are more visible and therefore are arrested more often.

Young people may commit more property crimes, but older people commit more violent crimes.

The Uniform Crime Report shows that young people commit only a small percentage of crimes.

all of the above

Question 29

1.

Which of the following is NOT a justification for punishment in the United States today?

Answer

rehabilitation of the criminal

preventing crime in the future

reimbursement of the victim

retribution for the crime

incapacitation of the criminal

Question 31

1.

According to Jack Katz, what do muggers gain from their crimes?

Answer

Nothing, they are caught too fast.

He argues that they are often trying to return to prison, where they feel more secure.

He argues that they mug individuals who they suspect may be carrying illegal drugs instead of money.

He argues that they mug for a sense of satisfaction and excitement.

He argues that they mug for a steady living that allows them to eventually move up in social status.

Question 32

1.

The Amish have neither the resources nor the desire to use prison as a sanction against members of their community who violate the rules. What sanction do they use instead?

Answer

Various methods of corporal punishment are used, whereby petty criminals may be branded, have their ears cropped, their noses slit, or even their fingers cut off.

Offenders are flogged or put in stocks to be publicly humiliated for a short period of time.

Monetary fines are used for most norm violations.

Meidung, or shunning, a process whereby no one within the community will associate or even talk with a rule breaker for a set period of time, is used.

Banishment is used, whereby violators are forced to leave the community and create a new life somewhere else.

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